Biometric And Fingerprint Technologies

Biometric and Fingerprint Systems

Introduction

Technological issues and the desire to ensure that processes being carried out by individuals and corporate are performed successfully have led to the increase in the usage of automated systems. Because of this an increased amount of people have opted to utilize these systems to execute their tasks. The necessity to have adequate safety measures in these systems as a way to ensure that private information and data is kept secure within the machine has also increased. It has brought up the necessity to ensure that anybody accessing the machine is identified before usage of the machine is granted.

The security techniques which have been developed through the years involve the usage of a database where information regarding all the members permitted to access the system is kept (Bishop, 2010, p. 120). Whenever a user wants to access the machine, he/she provides some data to the machine. This is when compared to information that’s stored in the database. In the event of a match, an individual is granted access. Once the information provided will not match any data within the database, access is denied. Through the years, passwords have already been used as a security strategy to access methods. This meant that the customers have to keep in mind these passwords. With the technical advancement, this system has been made easier through tokens.

The authentication process that’s available can be split into three main categories. The initial of these categories is known as knowledge based approach. In this category, only the one who is allowed to access the machine knows the authentication. That is mainly by using personal identification numbers or a remedy to a secret question. The technique that involves the application of passwords falls in this type. The second category is known as possession based method. In cases like this, the person who is permitted to access the machine possesses the authentication. The authentication could be in the form of a good card, a token or perhaps a key (Grembi, 2008, p. 154). Each one of these are tangible accessories and also have to be carried by the given individual to enable him/her to access the machine that will require them for authentication.

The third category may be the physiology based method. That is also known as behavior based. In cases like this, only the person permitted to access the system may be the authenticator. This type uses the traits of the individual. Biometrics can be categorized in this article. From these three categories, it is clear that for the knowledge based and possession based categories, the person has either to remember the authenticator or carry it. This is problematic as the person may forget to carry the authenticator or fail to remember it in case it is a password. The drawbacks of these techniques resulted in the need to come up with a way to counter these shortcomings. Biometrics offered a good alternative since the person just needed to be there and does not require the need to carry any component or keep a memory of the personal identification number.

Biometrics is an automated system that uses the traits of individuals for their identification (Wayman, Jain, Maoltoni, & Maio, 2005, p. 25). This technique uses various aspects of the human body to identify the validity of the request to gain access to a system. The various techniques that may be used include fingerprint recognition, face recognition, the use of a person’s iris to identify him/her, vein pattern recognition, DNA recognition, voice recognition and the key stroke pattern recognition (Woodward, Orlans, & Higgins, 2003, p. 56). These are not the only biometric techniques used as the advancement in technology has resulted in the development of fresh biometric methods. For the biometric system to work, information is 1st obtained from the people and stored in a database from where comparisons will be made when a user requests for access. Consequently, biometrics is based on the fact that there are distinct characteristics between all humans. The point that these characteristics are permanent does mean that the technique can be utilized for a long time with no need for changes. A number of the used techniques in biometrics happen to be illustrated below (Nalini & Bolle, 2004, p. 154).

The main objectives of the paper is to examine how biometric authentication systems is beginning to transform an individual authentication process. In addition, it touches on the problems which will be encountered as a result of implementation of the technology. Also worth focusing on will the analysis of advantages and the drawbacks of by using this technology in an individual authentication process. Finally, the existing training of the biometric authentication method in the UK will turn out to be examined.

Literature Review

Biometrics is really a term that’s obtained from two Greek thoughts. These are ‘bio’ this means ‘life’ and ‘metrics’ this means ‘to measure’. The biometric technique comprises various components. The factors include sensors, signal processing systems and algorithms, data storage units, matching algorithms and a choice process (Reid, 2003, p. 111). The sensor is really a component that is used to acquire analog data from the consumers of the machine. This data is constant and varies as time passes. It then converts the info right into a digital form. This means that the data is in an application which might be interpreted by the laptop or computer. The signal processing systems and algorithms are accustomed to perform the processing of the electronic digital signal that is received from the sensor (Nalwa, 1997). The signal is changed into the mandatory format for storage at this time.

Transmission conditioning and enhancement is also performed at this stage. The data storage unit serves the purpose of storing the processed signal. The stored data will be used as a reference during the identification process. The other component of this system is the matching algorithms. This refer to the guidelines that are followed during the comparison between the data that is stored in memory and the new data that is acquired from the user. After the matching method has been completed, your choice method follows (Chirillo, 2003, p. 136). In this technique the decision to permit or deny access is manufactured. If the provided facts match the data that’s stored in memory, then admittance is granted, otherwise it really is denied.

The advancement in systems has aided in making certain the ideas that have been only put on paper a long time ago are implemented. Biometrics can be one of many ideas. In situations where execution was conducted, the implemented method had not been automated. For example, the usage of the identification cards where identification was basically through looking at the photograph on the identification card. Evaluation between this photograph and the cards holder was then done. This technique was ineffective since an individual may be put through changes in his/her appearance and therefore making it tricky to for identification to come to be performed. The discovery of pcs and the processing capabilities that include them intended that the automation of the biometric procedures could finally be performed. The fingerprint method was the initial biometric technique to be utilized (Miller, 1994). It had been initially used to recognize criminals. These provided those in custody and the ones arrested after committing crimes. This allowed the law enforcing agencies to keep the data of the crimes committed by way of a particular individual.

Another technique that followed following the fingerprint technique had been the proposal by Frank Burch, an ophthalmologist, to use the iris routine in the identification of individuals (Lakhmi, 1999, p. 235). This was in 1936. This idea did not come to fruition at that time due to the limitations with regards to technology at the time. In the 1960’s encounter recognition came into play. At this time, the technique was not fully automated and required the assistance of another person to look at the facial features of the person requesting access. The process used the position of various facial characteristics and compared these positions to identify a person. Technological advancements finally ensured that these biometric processes are automated and more biometric identification strategies are identified. A few of the biometric techniques that are used are discussed under.

Face recognition

This technique was used through the years but it was not automated (Phillips, Rauss, & Der, 1997). The advancement in technologies enabled its automation and at the moment it runs independently without the supervision by another individual. The main techniques that are used in this process include a feature based technique which is also referred to as the geometric technique. The other technique is the view base technique also referred to as the photometric technique. The method that was initially used for facial acknowledgement was a two dimensional technique (Adini, Moses, & Ullman, 1997). However, this technique had limitations and attempts were made to make sure that a three dimensional recognition system was developed. The reason being a 3D system is even more accurate.

Principal components evaluation (PCA) is the technique that is mostly used in face recognition systems (Nanavati, 2002, p. 15). It really is where the image of the facial skin is acquired. The examin parts of the facial skin is then done. In this analysis, emphasis is manufactured on the length between different parts in the facial skin. The results of the analysis is then saved as a weighted sum in the techniques memory. Every time a person request to access the system, his/her entire face will be scanned (Chellappa, Phillips, & Rosenfeld, 2003). This is important since the system will do the analysis of the picture that is obtained after that compare it with the data that was stored in memory previously. Some other techniques that are implemented in the facial recognition technique include the Elastic Bunch Graph Matching (EBGM) and the Linear Discriminant Evaluation (LDA) (Nanavati, 2002, p. 22).

Hand geometry recognition

The hands geometry method is mainly used since it is easy to use. Its implementation process is not complicated compared to other biometric methods. The acceptability of the method also makes its implementation simple. The first implementation of this method was done in the past due 1980s and it has been used since then. The system involves taking various measurements of the geometry of the hands. These include its length, its width, its thickness and also calculation of the surface area of the hand. This information is saved in the system’s main database for evaluation to be performed through the matching process. A silhouette impression of the side is obtained through a particular camera (Ashbourn, 2000, p. 156).

The impression is then processed to get the details that are necessary for authentication. The surveillance camera has charge coupled devices which are inbuilt. These guide it in the capturing of the impression. An angled mirror can be incorporated in the system to make certain the sides of the side may also be captured. This is important because the mirror will make sure that the width of the side can be captured. Once all the necessary information has been collected, evaluation with the info stored in the data source is conducted. This is through the decision process and appropriate steps is taken. The memory requirement of this technique is small as only 9 bytes are stashed in the recollection for the requirements of comparisons.

Iris recognition

The structure of the iris for each individual is exclusive. This feature resulted in the inclusion of the iris among the biometric techniques for the requirements of authentication. The iris handles the amount of light getting into the pupil through the contraction or the growth of its muscles (Dougman, 2004). The muscle mass of the iris will be the ones that form the initial pattern that is useful for the identification process. An electronic camera is used to get the impression of the iris to indicate the beginning of the authentication process. The caliber of the impression captured by this camera should be very high. Care also needs to be taken to make sure that the eye lashes and the surrounding of the eye is not captured as this may act as noise and affect the acknowledgement process. To accomplish a high quality image during the capturing process, some video cameras employ additional illumination.

The camera’s megapixels are high enough and the only factor that could prevent them from obtaining the required image quality is the lack of enough illumination. The most typical form is the illumination by the use of infrared light. This form of light does not harm the person but only serves to provide illumination so the image quality can be increased. Once the image is taken, it is filtered using Gabor filters (Deravi, 2008). These are high pass filters that are tuned to a specific frequency. The image is next developed and stored in form of vectors. The obtained vectors do not change and are not affected by physical parameters such as illumination (Huang, Luo, & Chen, 2002). These vectors are stored and when matching must be done during the recognition process, comparison is made between the calculated vectors and those that are stored in memory space.

Voice recognition

In this technique, the voice is used to recognize the user. This is achieved by concentrate being made on the features of the voice that are affected by both the behavior of a person and the vocal tract of the individual (Campbell, 1997). This technique relies on other factors other than the way words are pronounced. A combination of the jaw movement, how the tongue is moved and the path through which air flows from the gentle tissues in the vocal determine the tone of voice which will be produced. These features bring about the variations of the tone of voice that’s produced. The main technique that’s found in the speech recognition method is where you will find a preset phrase that’s stored in memory (Ryan, 2009). An individual requesting to be granted admittance is then necessary to pronounce this phrase. After the pronounced phrase is captured, examination is performed to convert it to the mandatory format. Comparison is then simply made between your obtained value and those which are saved in memory.

This is through the matching process. Another technique that’s used in voice recognition will not use a pre-stored phrase. An individual requesting access is prompted to state a word and the machine performs the verification process. Even so, this involves the use of more difficult systems to make sure its efficiency and efficiency. The characteristics of the tone of voice which are compared may include the caliber of the speech, the length of the voice, the strength of the voice and in addition its pitch (Jain, Ross, & Prabhakar, 2004). This technique includes a microphone which captures the tone of voice source inform of an analog transmission and converts it to an electronic form. It is the form that the computer could be able to understand and therefore analyze the data.

Key stroke routine recognition

This involves the monitoring of how an individual inputs data to the system through the use of a keyboard (Monrose & Rubin, 2009). It is achieved by trying to recognize the habit of a person while inputting information through the keyboard. The aspects of the input that are measured include the speed with which the person types. This may be measured by the number of words the person inputs per minute. The precision of his/her typing as well as the typing rhythm of the individual could also be used for analysis. Therefore, this system becomes effective once the data to be suggestions is considerably long. This means that the characteristics mentioned above could be monitored. Short inputs may bring about premature analysis resulting in your choice process being erroneous. The necessity of this system is really a keyboard and monitoring software that’s programmed to investigate the keystrokes from a person (Bartmann, 2006).

Fingerprint recognition

This is the biometric technique that is useful for the longest time when compared to other approaches (Ratha, Cornell, & Bolle, 2006). Its automation was the first ever to be done as a great deal of research has been done onto it. Various forms of research have been conducted to determine the uniqueness of the fingerprint and this resulted in the development of the fingerprint minutiae as a method of authentication. The fingerprint is composed of patterns of ridges which form on the surface of the finger. Research that was carried out indicated that these patterns are unique for every individual (Parziale, 2008). The identification process involves the use of discontinuities in the patterns of these ridges. The division of the ridges is also used to aid in the identification process. The discontinuities of the ridges are referred to as minutiae. The minutiae are extracted from the finger during the authentication process to be able to identify their orientation, their types and also their location. These are the features that make the fingerprint unique for every particular individual. The combination of all these features cannot be the same for two individuals as research has shown.

Initial research about the fingerprint recognition technique was conducted by Galton who identified the features that can be used to aid in the identification process (Galton, 1892). However, at the time the technology that was present meant that his ideas could not be implemented fully. With the advancement in technology, this has been made possible. The technological changes have also contributed to the identification of additional features that are used to make fingerprint identification technique more secure. Research has resulted in the identification of more unique features in the fingerprint. However, all these features are not incorporated in the recognition technique. The main minutiae types that are used in the identification process include the bifurcation and the items where ridges end. Bifurcations make reference to the points where in fact the ridges split and be two as the ridge ends identifies the points where in fact the ridges terminate (Lin, Yifei, & Jain, 1998).

The significance of the ridges in this acknowledgement technique implies that their quality once the photo of the fingerprint has ended up taken is of wonderful importance. For the reason that their quality will make sure that the processing of the photo and the matching stage will undoubtedly be done without encountering errors. On the other hand, the standard of the ridges that’s obtain from the image is not always to the required standards. This may be attributed to the corruption of their clarity by noise that may have affected their high quality (Pankanti, Prabhakar, & Jain, 2002). In such cases, the image that is obtained must be enhanced to ensure that the quality that is required is achieved. This process is done before the identification process is conducted. Various techniques may be employed to make sure that the enhancement of these images is conducted to obtain the quality that is required for identification. The main methods that are used include the use of Gabor filters and the directional Fourier filtering (Hong & Jain, 1998).

The first step in the technique is the normalization of the ridges. This is then followed by the estimation of their orientation and their frequency. Lastly, filtering is conducted to make sure that the fingerprint picture is enhanced. The normalization process in fingerprint enhancement aims to improve the image’s mean and variance to achieve the recommended ideals (Delak & Grgic, 2004). In addition, it ensures that variations because of factors such as for example uneven contact between your finger area and the capturing device once the fingerprint image has been obtained are looked after. Also of concern may be the uneven distribution of the finger print ink. This deficiency is also corrected by the normalization procedure. The rate of recurrence selectivity and the orientation of the fingerprint are usually enhanced through the use of the Gabor filters. These filters are band pass filters that are tuned such that their selectivity is very large (Moenssens, 1971). Their tuning is set to the required values and this enables them to enhance the image according to these values.

The other technique which may be used in the fingerprint enhancement process is the directional Fourier filtering. This technique has the advantage of cost when compared to the use of Gabor filters. The price of using the technique is lower. In this method, the orientation of the fingerprint graphic is calculated. This is by the use of 16 directions in which the image is oriented during the calculation procedure (Weaver, 2006). The fingerprint graphic is rotated through these instructions while obtaining information about the projection of the ridges after every rotation. The variances of these projections are also obtained during the process. The projection that has the highest worth of projection is usually perceived to be dominant. This process is repeated for all the available pixels on the graphic and the combination of all the dominant projections results in the formation of a new enhanced image. The photograph is then filtered by using band pass filters which are tuned to a specific ridge orientation. The Fourier transform can be used to convert the photograph into regularity domain. In the regularity domain, the image is then simply filtered by filters (Bahuguna, 1996). The quantity of filters found in this case can be 16 and their tuning can be done to a particular orientation. Once the photograph has been approved the directional filters, it really is converted to the exceptional domain from t6he regularity domain.

The image then simply undergoes your final enhancement stage where pixel ideals are used to have the enhanced final image. Subsequently, these techniques that are useful for image enhancement are mainly using the use of filters. These filter systems are tuned to react to the required attributes of the fingerprint. These fingerprint enhancement techniques have four main phases. The first is normalization. After this procedure, estimation of the orientation of the ridges is done. This is followed by the estimation of the rate of recurrence of the ridges. Lastly, filtering is performed. Other important stages which are incorporated in the process incorporate segmentation and thinning (Rhodes & Brtillon, 1956). Segmentation is the process where the actual part of the fingerprint is differentiated from the background (Brunelli & Falavigna, 1995).

This is done during the process where the fingerprint image is being obtained for authentication. This is a necessity during this process since it ensures that only the fingerprint image is acquired and would subsequently be processed without the presence of other components that may become noise. Presence of the backdrop in the photo may distort the processing of the fingerprint and therefore leading to errors being encountered as fake minutiae could be obtained. The separation is principally done through the assessment of variance values. Thinning however is done prior to the extraction of the minutiae is performed. This is to ensure that the width of the foreground pixels is one pixel for each of them (Parks, 1991). This is achieved by the removal of any additional width if present.

The improvement of the image may be the initial period of processing. The image that is enhanced must undergo other operations. The extraction of the minutiae is definitely one of these processes. After the extraction of the minutiae is performed, the image that’s obtained is then processed to ensure there is no chance for the minutiae being fake. Minutiae extraction could be done using different techniques. The main one used in this method may be the Crossing Number (CN) strategy (Jain & Ross, Multi-modal biometrics, 2004). This technique uses the patterns of the ridges together with the enhanced image. The ridge pixels are scanned by the use of a 3X3 window to obtain the minutiae (Jain & Ross, Multi-modal biometrics, 2004). Computation of the Crossing Number is then performed. This involves the comparison of the pixels that are adjacent in the eight-neighborhood. The properties of the Crossing Number that are used are shown below.

Table 1: Crossing Number properties

The classification of the ridge pixels can then be done according to the details provided in the Crossing Number properties. Because of this if the crossing amount of 2 is attained, the ridge pixels will undoubtedly be classified as an ongoing ridge point. This process depends on the skeleton image in order to extract the minutiae (Turk & Pentland, 1991). After the minutiae are obtained, it really is subjected to further processing to ensure all the false minutiae which may be present in the photo are eliminated. The structures that could represent a false minutiae incorporate spur structures, hole structures, triangle structures and spike structures (Ashbaugh, 1991). When these structures come in the minutiae they may become either bifurcations in case a hole, triangular or spike structures seem. They may also become false ridge endings if the spur and spike structures occur. The appearance of the false minutiae may lead to errors during the decision process. Rules are set to govern the way false minutiae are removed. These regulations are accustomed to govern the validity of a ridge closing in addition to a bifurcation. If the determined ridge ending will not conform to the standards which are set by these rules, it really is discarded as a fake bifurcation of a ridge.

Existing biometric authentication practice in the united kingdom

THE UNITED KINGDOM has adapted different biometric tactics in the activities which are managed by the private market plus the government. This is because of the desire to improve the security of a business. The software of the biometric techniques in the united kingdom may be split into three categories. Included in these are the forensic category, the federal government and lastly the commercial software. The forensic category is principally found in the identification of lifeless bodies that isolated to make certain the household of the deceased can be notified. It is also found in the identification of the mother and father of a child for example if there is a dispute in the court. This is important since it servers to settle the cases. The UK government uses biometric for a number of purposes. Firstly the passports are electronically produced. Theses passports possess a chip that holds the data of a particular individual (Condon, 2007). The colleges in the UK have also implemented the usage of biometrics in their systems. Schools use the fingerprint technique to identify their students before entry to the compound and also other points within the school compound.

The government has also implemented the usage of biometrics in its security buildings and the prison department. The identification of inmates has also incorporated the usage of facial recognition where the facial images of the criminals are used. Border security is also enhanced in the UK through the use of the biometric techniques. This ensures that immigrants do not enter the country illegally. At the transport terminals including the airports, biometrics is used to make certain individuals boarding the planes happen to be counterchecked to ensure that those people who are boarding the planes will be the same individuals who checked in. Biometrics in addition has been applied in the finance institutions. Included in these are the ATM machines where in fact the fingerprint authentication technique has been employed. The biometric authentication for purchase over the internet in addition has been increased (Condon, 2007).

Methodology

Introduction

In order to perform effective research, the study method should be identified. The choice of a specific design is dependent on several factors. The research design is really a stepwise procedure that shows the way the research will be completed. These include the problem that your research intends to solve as well as the passage of time that the researcher has. The study design ensures that all the details that is collected meets certain requirements of the study and aims to resolve the objectives of the study. Therefore the research design ought to be chosen to ensure that all of the objectives of the study are fulfilled within the allocated period for the research. This section deals with the research design and the methods that have been used to collect information for the research activity.

The research that has been carried out previously in the field of biometrics mainly focused on the implementation process of the biometric techniques and how this affected the current systems that were being used. The researchers mainly focused on improving the system to ensure that a system that was as efficient as possible was developed. The recommendations on how they intended to achieve this are also included in their research. The research that I carried out aimed to collect information about various issues that affect the biometric techniques and how the implementation of biometrics has made a difference in the current society. Therefore, the research focuses on how the biometric techniques have been implemented and where they’re used, how different techniques have already been accepted and also their particular person merits and demerits.

The accessibility and accessibility of the prior research that had been completed is essential to my research since it will act as a way to obtain secondary data for my analysis. This data is quite helpful when discovering conclusions because it involves recommendations which were made after research was completed. They can therefore become essential documents for comparison between your data obtained and whatever was obtained before.

The methodologies which may be used in carrying out the study vary. There are many methods that could be applied. Included in these are; the exploratory research technique, the explanatory research technique, the conclusive research technique and the performance monitoring analysis approach. The exploratory research technique can be used where very limited knowledge is well known concerning the topic being studied. It really is used to gather more info about the topic and make sure that the best possible option is applied. In this analysis this technique was employed to get information regarding the execution of biometrics.

This information included information on which methods are preferred and just why and also the explanations why other methods aren’t easily acceptable. An explanatory analysis approach however aims to establish the sources of certain results in a study. It relates the complexities and the effects of these causes on the result that’s produced. In this research, this process was used to analyze the effects of the introduction of the use of the biometric passports in the UK. The descriptive research strategy requires that the researcher offers more information about the topic being studied. It may be used to evaluate the researches that were already carried out with the one that is presently being carried out.

Data Collection

Data collection is an important aspect when carrying out any research activity. It is because the data that is collected will act as a very important tool during the analysis and conclusion of the research. The choice of the data collection methods to be used in any research therefore becomes an aspect that cannot be overlooked to ensure that the data that is collected is of use for the intended analysis. The data collection methods that were used during this research included observation, the use of questionnaires and also interviews. These methods acted as a way to obtain primary data for the study. The records that are within journal articles that linked to the study were also consulted to make certain proper analysis was completed. The advantages of utilizing the primary sources of information including the interviews are that the info is not distorted. It really is obtained directly from the foundation and therefore generally in most circumstances it really is accurate. The researcher may also ask for clarifications incase you can find areas that aren’t clear and this means that the data collected is without errors.

Information about the research was obtained from a sample of 50 individuals. These were selected carefully to make sure that they were representative of the entire population. The selection ensured that the users were from different age groups that captured the young, middle aged and also the old. The respondents furthermore included people that were from different levels of education. As stated earlier, the aspects of the research that were being investigated included how the technology has been used, the various contributors to the efficient use of the technology, how the technologies is accepted in the community, what biometric techniques are mainly preferred and the advantages and the disadvantages of the individual techniques. Interviews were carried out within the chosen sample. Observations on the use of different biometric techniques were furthermore made. Questionnaires that contained both open up ended and closed questions were distributed to the samples and the results that were obtained were analyzed. The data that was collected and its analysis are discussed beneath.

The response of the respondents when requested which biometric method they prefer and where the biometric techniques should be implemented are shown and explained below.

Table 2: Response to which biometric technique should be used

The above data may be represented in a pie chart as demonstrated below.

From the pie chart above, it could be observed that 34% of the respondents favored the usage of the fingerprint strategy, 18% favored the application of facial recognition strategy, and another 18% were against the application of biometrics, 14% favored the application of hand geometry for authentication, 8% favored the iris recognition strategy, 6% were for DNA reputation and 2% favored signature reputation. It usually is concluded that a lot of people favored the usage of the fingerprint technique as a way of authentication. When inquired why the chose this system, they gave the reasons as to the reasons this is their preferred choice. These causes included that the strategy has been useful for many years. Therefore, it’s been put through advancements and the bugs which were initially in the machine during its inception have been removed. In addition they felt that the usage of the existing fingerprint authentication technique benefits in more accurate benefits being obtained. A lot of the respondents who chose this system also said that the strategy is simple to implement and apply. Its cost can be considerably less than that of other techniques. Eventually they said that the strategy can be utilized anywhere since it isn’t suffering from the prevailing physical disorders.

Once the respondents were asked where in fact the biometrics technique ought to be applied, their response covered almost all the places where the technique has been applied. A lot of them insisted that it ought to be applied at security checkpoints such as for example at the boarder points and in addition at the entrance of properties. The also preferred it used at transport terminals such as for example airports and at teach stations. Using biometrics at financial institutions was likewise mentioned with emphasis being produced on its use in automated teller machines and transactions that are carried out on the internet.

The respondents were likewise asked of their thoughts on the role of the government, the businesses and the customers in the biometric systems. The majority of the respondents indicated that the government should ensure the implementation of the methods that may enhance security to its citizens since this is among the prime functions of any authorities. The also felt that the government should be on the forefront in ensuring that the biometric specifications are developed and implemented to make sure that there are laid rules and regulations for its use. Few respondents felt that it is the duty of the government to ensure that more study is conducted in the industry. The reaction of the respondents on the purpose of businesses was they should make sure that the techniques that are utilized are favorable for the conditions for which they are necessary to operate in.

The businesses also needs to be involved in undertaking research to make certain the field of biometrics are more secure and new technologies which will ensure increased security and safety are developed. The respondents as well said that the purpose of the users would be to make sure that they follow the standards which were laid out for the usage of all the biometric techniques. They ought to also make sure that the gain the required knowledge to use the biometric techniques properly without causing any harm to these systems. Finally, the consumers should make sure that their biometric facts is protected and isn’t used for other purposes apart from authentication.

Advantages and the negatives of biometrics as a means of authentication were as well investigated. The compilation of the reply by the respondents is certainly summarized in the desk below.

Table 3: Benefits of biometrics

A graph illustrating this distribution is found below.

The data implies that a lot of the respondents felt that the main advantage
of biometrics is the proven fact that it has led to increased security where it’s been used. This if accompanied by the truth that the biometric data can’t be lost. This is when compared to other authentication techniques such as the use of passwords and also tokens. The passwords can be lost or even forgotten but when it comes to biometrics this is not possible. The low cost of its implementation, increased accuracy, reduction in the amount of paperwork required, its trial being auditable and also the fact that it cannot be copied were also the other advantages that were mentioned by the respondents. The research about the drawbacks of the system was also conducted. The main concern among most of the respondents was the privacy issue.

Most of them felt that the use of biometrics will make them susceptible to security lapses. Their privacy may also be compromised as a result of using the system. Other disadvantages that were mentioned incorporated the reluctance of the people to respond to change. Most respondents felt that many people will still feel that using the authentication techniques that they are used to are more secure than changing to the use of biometrics. They felt that this will result in a decrease in the number of the people using the technique and the projections that were made on the number of people that will use the system may not be achieved.

Conclusion

The biometrics authentication technology has played an important position in the transformation of an individual authentication process. Primarily, the authentication process typically involved the application of passwords. This was susceptible to certain disadvantages including forgetting the password. In case of such an occurrence, the person was not able to access the system unless the password was obtained or the system was reset. The password could also be obtained by another person and gain unauthorized entry to the system. Tokens were also used and they needed to be carried anytime the person needed to authenticate and gain access to the system. Biometrics implementation has ensured that these problems and issues are eliminated. Simply because with the biometric system, simply the availability of the individual requesting for system access is necessary. The problem of getting rid of the token or forgetting the passwords can be eliminated by this system. The biometric technique in addition has posed an advantage in the truth that it possesses aided in the upsurge in the amount of security. Since its execution, the cases of insecurity because of unauthorized access have decreased noticeably. This may be related to the personalization of the gain access to methods as the technique requires the physical occurrence of the one who is allowed to access the system

However, additionally, there are concerns about the usage of the biometric way of user authentication. These problems are mainly in the type of privacy. The users believe that once they hand out their data to the biometric systems, the info can be utilized for other purposes and not simply authentication. The tracking of these whereabouts after they authenticate at a specific point also acts being an issue that the strategy should sort to improve. The users also believe that the technique enable you to gain more details including the social security, insurance and also the savings of the average person by use of the provided information. These aspects act as the drawbacks to the implementation of this technique.

Recommendations

The drawbacks of biometrics as a technique need to be looked at and eliminated to make sure that the system is adopted by an increased number of individuals and the corporate world. Measures should be put in place to ensure that the information that is provided by the users of the biometric system is used solely for reasons of authentication. Incase the information is used for other reasons; the consent of the user should first be sorted. This will ensure that the privacy of the users is observed and could promote the use of the machine. More standards that govern the usage of the biometric techniques ought to be developed to make certain the systems are run proficiently and effectively. The users also needs to be educated on the procedures that are offered and how to utilize them. This will make sure that the systems aren’t misused and simply serve the purposes they were made to. More research also needs to be conducted in neuro-scientific biometrics to make certain more biometric authentication procedures are established and those that are offered are improved to improve security.

References

Adini, Y., Moses, Y., & Ullman, S. 1997, ‘Face reputation’, IEEE Dealings on Pattern Analysis and Equipment Intelligence , Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 731-732.

Ashbaugh, R. 1991, ‘Ridgeology’, Journal of Forensic Identification , Vol. 1, No. 6, pp. 16-64.

Ashbourn, J. 2000, Biometrics, Springer, London.

Bahuguna, R. 1996, ‘Fingerprint verification employing hologram matched filterings’, Proceeding of Biometric Consortium Eighth Assembly , Vol. 8, Zero. 3, pp. 26-35.

Bartmann, D. 2006, ‘Design of an authentication technique based on keystroke dynamics utilizing a pre-defined input text message’, International Journal of Facts Security , Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 10-12.

Bishop, M. 2010, Computer Security and safety, Pearson, Boston.

Brunelli, R., & Falavigna, D. 1995, ‘Man or woman identification using numerous cues’, IEEE Dealings on Pattern Analysis and Equipment Intelligence , Vol. 3, No. 6, pp. 955-966.

Campbell, P. 1997, ‘Speaker reputation’, Proceedings of the IEEE , Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 1437-1462.

Chellappa, W., Phillips, P., & Rosenfeld, A. 2003, ‘Face reputation’, ACM Processing Surveys , Vol. 1, No. 7, pp. 399-458.

Chirillo, J. 2003, Implementing Biometric Security and safety, McGraw Hill, NY.

Condon, R. 2007, ‘New biometrics see through you’, Inforsecurity , Vol. 5, Zero. 1, pp. 24-25.

Delak, K., & Grgic, M. 2004, ‘A study of biometric recognition approaches’, International Symposium Consumer electronics in Marine , Vol. 12, No. 4, pp. 16-18.

Deravi, F. 2008, ‘Biometric standards’, Developments in biometrics , Vol. 2, No. 12, pp. 473-489.

Dougman, J. 2004, ‘How iris recognition works out’, IEEE Dealings on Circuits and Devices for Video Systems , Vol. 23, Zero. 14, pp. 21-30.

Galton, F. 1892, Fingerprints, Mcmillan, London.

Grembi, J. 2008, Secure Software Expansion, Cengage Knowing, Boston.

Hong, L., & Jain, A good. 1998, ‘Intergrating faces and fingerprints for personalized identification’, Proceedings of Asian Conference on Computer Perspective , Vol. 3, Zero. 10, pp. 8-11.

Huang, P., Luo, W., & Chen, Y. 2002, ‘An efficient iris recognition technique’, Proceedings of First of all International Conference on Machine Knowing and Cybernetics , Vol. 30, No. 17, pp. 4-5.

Jain, K., & Ross, A good. 2004, ‘Multi-modal biometrics’, Proceedings of the 12th European Signal Processing Meeting , Vol. 9, Zero. 6, pp. 1221-1224.

Jain, K., Ross, A., & Prabhakar, S. 2004, ‘An introduction to biometric systems’, IEEE Dealings on Circuits and Devices for Video Technologies , Vol. 36, No. 11, pp. 4-20.

Lakhmi, J. ,1999, Intelligent Biometric Strategies in Fingerpring and Face Acknowledgement, CRC Push, London.

Lin, H., Yifei, W., & Jain, A. 1998, ‘Fingerprint enhancement’, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Device Intelligence , Vol. 34, No. 23, pp. 777-789.

Miller, B. 1994, ‘Vital signs of identity’, IEEE Spectrum , Vol. 56, No. 18, pp. 22-30.

Moenssens, A. 1971, Fingerprint Strategies, London, Chilton Publication Company.

Monrose, F., & Rubin, A new. 2009, ‘Keystroke dynamics as a biometric for authentication’, Future Generation Computer Systems , Vol. 15, No. 8, pp. 351-359.

Nalini, R., & Bolle, R. 2004, Automatic Fingerprint Acknowledgement, Springer, New York.

Nalwa, V. 1997, ‘Automatic on-range signature verification’, Proceedings of IEEE , Vol. 24, No. 10, pp. 213-239.

Nanavati, S. 2002, Biometrics, Prentice Hall, Boston.

Pankanti, S., Prabhakar, S., & Jain, A. 2002, ‘Individuality in fingerprints’, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Evaluation and Machine Intelligence , Vol. 63, Zero. 17, pp. 1010-1025.

Parks, R. 1991, ‘Persona identification – biometrics’, Information Security and safety , Vol. 3, Zero. 3, pp. 181-191.

Parziale, G. 2008, ‘Touchless fingerprint systems’, Developments in Biometrics , Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 25-48.

Phillips, P., Rauss, J., & Der, Z. 1997, ‘The face recognition technology examination methodology’, Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Laptop Vision and Pattern Reputation , Vol. 14, No. 6, pp. 36-48.

Ratha, K., Cornell, H., & Bolle, M. 2006, ‘A case study in fingerprints’, Cancelable Biometrics , Vol. 13, No. 7, pp. 370-373.

Reid, P. 2003, Biometrics for Network Security, Prentice Hall, Boston.

Rhodes, F., & Brtillon, A. 1956, Father of Scientific Detection, Aberland-Schuman, New York.

Ryan, R. 2009, ‘Importance of biometric standards’, Biometric Technology , Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 7-10.

Turk, M., & Pentland, A. 1991, ‘Eigenfaces for recognition’, Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience , Vol. 4, No. 4, pp. 71-86.

Wayman, J., Jain, A., Maoltoni, D., & Maio, D. 2005, Biometric Systems Technology. Springer: London.

Weaver, C. 2006, ‘Biometric authentication’, Computer , Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 96-97.

Woodward, J., Orlans,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.