Feeding Children with CHARGE Syndrome by Dobbelsteyn et al.
The research problem that the study attempts to investigate is the frequent and long-term feeding difficulties that children with CHARGE experience (Dobbelsteyn, Peacocke, Blake, Crist, Rashid, 2007). This problem is easily identified in the first sentence of the abstract. It is clearly stated and described in more detail within the intro. The problem declaration and purpose associated with this study are usually clear, but this may be hard for a readers to recognize its importance. The authors notice that this is actually the 1st study available in order to explore risk aspects for feeding troubles and skills within children with COST syndrome, which provides it significance within laying a basis for brand spanking new research pathways. When it comes to nursing, the particular researchers state that will professionals may use the particular information to offer a better prognosis plus guidelines for controlling the problem.
Review of Literature
The study does not really have a devoted literature review area. This really is partially credited to it becoming the first research on the subject, that provides little study for comparison. The short overview of books is present within the introduction to explain basic characteristics plus symptoms of CHARGE and to develop a foundation for the study, which would justify the research being done. This article was published in 2007, but a majority of the references used were from the 1990s. Very few sources were within the five-year range of the date of publication for this study. Despite the topic being niche plus having no earlier research, the vast majority of the books simply outlined the outward symptoms and medical features of CHARGE symptoms in children.
The references had been articles in respectable and credible clinical journals and publications. It is not clear which of the particular sources are main research or supplementary analysis, however the publications of publication show that they had been written and peer-reviewed by experts within the medical field. General, the literature that will the study will present makes a foundation that is helpful for the discussion associated with the conducted study and is completely relevant to the particular topic.
There will be no clear conceptual or theoretical platform outlined by the particular researchers in this particular study. Nevertheless , 1 can be deduced. The authors are usually suggesting that particular characteristics of COST syndrome such because structural defects within the palate, nose cavity, and goitre, cardiovascular impairments, plus neurological dysfunction may all cause developing issues and physical responses, which guide to feeding troubles. These key ideas in terms associated with various characteristics are usually defined clearly plus extensively. The experts could have already been clearer in setting out the conceptual chart for their research.
Research Question plus Hypothesis
The fundamental research question presented by the research is: “which COST syndrome characteristics possess the greatest effect on early feeding development and predict feeding behaviors in the long term? ” The research question is directly stated. However, there does not seem to be a clear hypothesis stated or implied by the authors other than highlighting which potential structural defects and neurological dysfunction may lead to issues. This is placed within the context of a conceptual framework discussed earlier. Key variables are clearly stated in the variables section. The independent variable included various CHARGE characteristics include clinical features, medical interventions, and feeding behaviors or interventions. Meanwhile, the dependent variable consisted of the score on a Pediatric Assessment Scale for Severe Feeding Problems (PASSFP). In a manner, the study examined the reliability and validity of the PASSFP scale as a clinically viable tool to measure feeding difficulties.
The rights of the participants were protected by outlining the study’s methods and purpose beforehand. Researchers sought to obtain informed consent from the parents before participation. Ethical approval was received from the University of the researchers as nicely as CHARGE-oriented businesses that helped to get participants for the particular study. Overall, the particular study posed a good insignificant risk in order to participants or their own children as this simply sought in order to gather information. The particular only risk may be the privacy and privacy of data given that it was mentioned that private information was collected. This did not include anyhow resolved from the researchers.
The research design comprised of offering the particular participants a set of questions developed especially for the particular study. This kind of design match the research reason for determining which features had an impact on feeding troubles. It is not really the perfect design because it based the particular data on mother or father judgment and findings. It attempted in order to convert qualitative findings into quantifiable dimensions, which leaves the particular potential for mistake. However, the experts did use the significant quantity of data points in order to determine relationships. The particular design had not been properly described and discovered, which threatens the particular validity from the research. It was unclear how researchers made a decision to convert feeding actions into quantifiable information. There was a good overwhelming reliance upon the PASSFP level, which was nor demonstrated nor explained in depth. This may create cases of prejudice since researchers choose a tool without having informing the target audience which can be potentially encouraging from the original speculation.
The population test contains parents associated with 39 children that will were previously verified with an associated with COST syndrome. Conditions were centered on the features determined by the particular Canadian Pediatric Society. Although the sample was clearly identified and described, very little detail was provided. Basic details such as the range and the average age of the children, as well as the number of parents participating, would have been helpful. The sampling design was adequate. The researchers sought out participants through official medical organizations focusing on pediatric health and CHARGE syndrome. Participants were provided information on the study and the criteria for eligibility. Therefore, there was a rigorous and multi-step process that narrowed the eligible sample size to reduce any potential flaws or biases. There was no power analysis conducted. The sample size was not large, but considering that CHARGE syndrome is not common, it may be appropriate. The sample size seems adequate to conduct the research necessary to address the research question.
Data Collection and Measurement
The operational and conceptual definitions are congruent. The key variables were operationalized using the PASSFP scale, which provided a numerical score that reflected the feeding development of each child. This is a reliable and valid tool as researchers note that it has been helpful in determining the level of difficulty an individual child may have during feeding and dependence on tube feeding. Furthermore, the measure could provide differentiation amongst groups of children who required various methods of feeding: regular, tube fed, and mild feeding difficulties. Overall, the data in the particular experiment was gathered through the make use of of a specifically developed questionnaire. This helped to determine the particular independent variables associated with clinical characteristics plus medical history. In addition, it helped to look for the child’s feeding abilities and challenges throughout various periods associated with time, that have been founded as reference factors.
Data were examined using a software applications system called Statistical Bundle for Social Savoir (SPSS). The program was utilized to determine eq, means, and regular deviations. Furthermore, the Fisher’s exact check was used in order to determine the partnership between clinical features and feeding problems. Correlation between PASSFP scores and age group was determined simply by Spearman’s rank-order relationship test. Meanwhile, the particular relationship between medical characteristics and PASSFP was determined via the Mann-Whitney U test. The experts provided a comprehensive description of the particular data analysis strategies used. The layed out statistical methods plus tests work with regard to the level associated with measurement to figure out relationships and evaluations for analysis.
Presentation of Results and Implications
The findings are described in extraordinary fine detail and specificity, presenting numeric and statistical data. The researchers used tables and graphs to demonstrate the collected and analyzed data, referring to these throughout the results section of the article. The findings are demonstrated in a manner facilitating a meta-analysis as various independent variables of the study are compared in relationships to the dependent variable. There is not enough information to be used for evidence-based practice. However, this is not the aim that the authors sought to achieve. The presented findings can serve as guidelines and just general awareness for medical professionals to be aware of exactly how congenital disabilities associate to feeding troubles. Since during the particular time of the particular study’s publication, simply no research was completed explore such associations, this information has been medically significant. These types of tips for clinical exercise and additional research are usually reasonable and well-developed. The researchers notice that there are a number associated with factors and problems that should be regarded as in the analysis and management associated with CHARGE syndrome with regards to feeding difficulties. The particular authors did not really present limitations or even challenges to the particular study.
Dobbelsteyn, C., Peacocke, S. D., Blake, K., Crist, Watts., & Rashid, Meters. (2007). Feeding troubles in children along with CHARGE syndrome: Frequency, risk factors, plus prognosis. Dysphagia, 23(2), 127-135. Web.