Organizational Leadership and Personal Qualities
Many people believe that leadership is an issue that can be developed through training. Others especially those in the olden days believed that leaders were born. But I have come to realize that leadership is a diverse topic. This can be seen right from its definition to the many theories that have been put forward to try and explain leadership. There are many definitions of leadership and theories on leadership are still growing. In this paper, we will look at the background of company XYZ, which will be discussed together with a look at the type of industry in which it operates.
The different theories put forward on leadership will be looked at paying attention to its definition and how it is analyzed in the context of Company XYZ. Here, the leadership styles and qualities of the person behind the success of this company will also be critically analyzed in line with the many leadership theories that have been put forward. This paper will also compare and contrast the different opinions given by theorists. We then critically analyze the theories and wind up with their summary.
Company XYZ is a privately-owned equity firm that has specialized in dealing with investments across several sectors. It has interests in the banking and financial sector, it is engaged in hotel and hotel management, it has investments in real estate and information technology, it has strategic investments in the entertainment sector, it has ventures in supermarkets and upscale fashion retailing. Company XYZ has also invested heavily in media, telecommunications, healthcare, and also in the industrial sector. Company XYZ has major investments in Saudi Arabia and other developing markets particularly in Africa and in the Middle East, besides other international investments. Company XYZ was founded in the 1980s and is headquartered in Saudi Arabia.
What is leadership?
As already mentioned, there are many definitions of leadership. The definition that one picks on is very important because it shows how one views leadership. In this case, I will use the definition given by one author called Yukl because it brings out leadership as a process. It also tackles the issues that I think are important to those leaders who want to fulfil their leadership responsibilities. This author defined leadership as “the process of influencing others to understand and agree about what needs to be done and how to do it, and the process of facilitating individual and collective efforts to accomplish shared objectives” (Yukl, the year 2010 p. 8).
To clearly understand leadership in Organization XYZ, I will certainly employ the make use of of theory due to the fact theories show exactly how leadership works as well as implications in a good organization. The ideas In my opinion will tackle fully this subject matter are, Fiedler’s backup theory, Transformational concept of leadership, genuine leadership theory plus the trait plus behaviour theories associated with leadership.
Fiedler’s Contingency Design
This particular model was created by Fiedler’s the scholar dealing along with organizational behaviour. This is mainly the situational model associated with leadership, the 1st one that attempted to describe how frontrunners develop. In this particular model, Fiedler presumes two things, initial, that a leader’s performance depends upon “the degree in order to which the scenario gives him manage and influence—that will be, the likelihood that this individual can successfully achieve the job” (Fiedler, 1977, p. 29), and second that will the leader’s overall performance depends on “the leader’s basic motivation—that is, whether the particular leader’s self-esteem is dependent primarily on achieving the task or even on having near supportive relations along with others” (Fiedler, 1977, p. 29).
In this particular model, Fiedler feels that leaders are usually task or partnership motivated. This 2 combine to create a leadership design that can endure change. He highly believes that with regard to any leader in order to be effective, this individual or she ought to learn how in order to adapt leadership circumstances so that these people match with the management style and the particular degree of manage wielded.
Fiedler used exactly what he called the particular Least Preferred Coworker scale (LPC) in order to assess leadership designs whereby leaders are usually asked to choose amongst their workers, the worker whom he is able to not work very well with. This employee can now be rated making use of opposing viewpoints. Crucial leaders about the particular worker should receive the low LPC rating while those that cared more about the work can get high LPC rating. In this design, three aspects are usually identified as determinants associated with situational control.
These are usually the leader-member connection approach, which is dependent on the determine of confidence, believe in and respect that subordinates accord their own leader, the task-structure approach, which is dependent on the degree to which tasks are usually structured or not really structured, as well as the position-power approach, which displays the extent to which the energy held by the leader influences issues like hiring plus firing subordinates (Gitman and McDaniel, 2008, p. 1).
Relating this particular theory to this case, I see that Mr Faisal matched up his leadership design with appropriate circumstances. This helped him improve the overall performance of Company XYZ. He learned exactly how to avoid any situation that this individual suspected might provide him a failing and only went for those situations that brought success to his Company. This really is suggested by Fiedler on p. 176. Fiedler’s leader scenario match approach has been effectively used by Mr Faisal plus this was observed in the way his leadership enhanced worker behaviour upon the job as it was seen in the improved worker overall performance. This theory offers enjoyed a lot of support through many people studying on leadership; nevertheless, it also has a few important concerns that should be resolved.
Numerous flaws can become found in this particular theory. Many research do not appreciate the way the LPC score is construed specifically when differentiating task orientation plus relationship orientation. Fiedler himself acknowledged the particular flaws and attempted to rectify the particular theory by picking out the Cognitive Source Theory. In this particular theory, he suggested that the leader’s overall performance depends upon how this individual incorporates experience plus intelligence and their behaviour as well as the scenario. This means that will the LPC design will not address almost all the issues concerning leadership. This does not, nevertheless, mean that this particular theory should become rejected; it just shows there a lot more to leadership compared with how what the concept gives (Fiedler & Garcia, 1987).
Conclusions regarding Fiedler’s theory
No 1 can ignore the particular proven fact that much study has been transported about this concept and more assistance for this realized. This particular support, however, offers not stopped other people from criticizing this. Many argue that Fiedler’s theory was dependent on research carried out on military coaching. Others argue that will the LPC rating can not be trusted totally as well as the fact the particular Fiedler himself created another theory has been proof enough that will something was lacking within the original concept. This theory in addition does not address typically the most important factors in leadership employed by Mr Faisal with Company XYZ. That fails to notify us that commanders should motivate enthusiasts to work further than expectations and in addition leaders striving to be able to develop others. Typically the next two authority theories address problems.
Hersey and Blanchard also came way up with a situational leadership model of which shows how commanders should adjust their very own styles of authority to match typically the needs with their subordinates. This is, consequently , a contingency idea that looks with the followers while a way of measuring success involving leadership. Here, that is argued of which it all will depend on on followers to be able to either accept or perhaps reject an specific as a chief, that effectiveness would not depend on precisely what the leader may, rather of what the or her enthusiasts do. Hersey and even Blanchard came finished with four behaviors that followers can easily exhibit (Schermerhorn, the new year, p. 320).
There happen to be situations where enthusiasts may be both hesitant and unable to be able to carry out specific task. Followers occasionally are unable but happy to perform assigned responsibilities. Followers can in addition be able to hold out some obligations but unwilling. Last but not least, followers may always be in a situation and eager to carry outside a duty. Leaders, in this case, don’t have much to do; they are only supposed to be lenient and delegate duties. Mr Faisal realized that company XYZ was not just about him, but about the workers as well. He, therefore, respected their views and their capabilities. This enabled him to know who and when to delegate duties as the situation dictated. This leadership style created a good rapport between him and his workers, who reciprocated by working hard to oversee the success of company XYZ (Prosser, 2007, p. 50).
The Vroom-Yetton expectancy model
There is also the Vroom-Yetton expectancy model that tries to determine how much participation leaders need from their followers before making decisions (Anon 2008, 145). Five leadership styles are presented in this model. These are; the telling approach where leaders look at problems and make independent decisions before informing their followers. The selling approach, where leaders get information from followers concerning a problem, makes decisions independently and convinces the followers to carry out the task.
The consulting approach involves leaders getting advice from followers, makes independent decisions, and informs the followers about them. The join approach requires leaders to get ideas from followers, tends to make decisions independently and even informs followers. Last but not least, the delegate technique, where leaders operate together with enthusiasts in coming way up with answers to be able to proble situational leadership theory, like a leader, Mr Faisal employed the use outsourcing for approach. He usually works hand within hand together with his employees sharing views plus ideas on issues in the organization. This saw your pet arrive at suitable solutions that improved the success of the organization (Vroom-Yetton, n. deb., p. 1).
This particular is one associated with the most valued leadership theories which were developed by Home. This theory will be so motivational in order to the extent it links needs in order to satisfaction, which will be all determined by exactly how effective their overall performance turns out (Leadership Theories, 2004, g. 1). In this particular theory, followers are usually trained, guided, backed, and rewarded in order to perform effectively (Kritsonis, 2004, p. 5).
Home came up along with four behaviours that will are exhibited inside leadership (Anon 2008, 259). House’s see differs from that associated with Fiedler in this this individual assumes that frontrunners have flexibility. This individual, therefore, implies that a good individual can show any or all the designs of leadership because the situation dictates. The theory furthermore presents two groups by which contingency factors are available. There are usually those present in conditions that fall outdoors employee’s control. Right here, it is contended that environmental aspects help in identifying the behaviour that will leaders should possess to maximize worker effort (Griffin, 3 years ago, p. 332).
The following category involves all those that are natural in the individual traits of workers; in this situation, personal traits determine how behaviours within the environment and the ones shown by the particular leader are construed. Which means that a leader’s behaviour will not really be effective if this does not match up with the environmental design and with the particular characteristics of workers. This theory will be well seen inside the application in the manner Mr Faisal analyzed the needs associated with his followers within different situations plus came up along with methods for satisfying all of them. He always congratulated hardworking employees simply by giving them benefits. Employees with house or workplace issues were always provided time off in order to sort them out there. He always made sure that employees experienced salary increments throughout hard economic occasions. This is the reason why he was loved by his employees (Plunkett, 2007, p. 452).
Transformational leadership and the particular Full Range Model
Transformational management theory is worried with the development of a good enhancements made on one’s fans by caring regarding each other’s attention. Many leaders make use of the transformational design of leadership within their organizations. It will be said this concept lends its source to charismatic management. Avolio (2010) described charismatic leaders because “those who can energize others via their utilization of icons, images, stories, plus rhetoric to do remarkable levels” (p. 4).
The particular leader and their or her fans interact in the mutual process within improving one another via high standards associated with motivation and morality. Such leaders generally set the standards with regard to values and values to be followed by the fans. After setting these types of values and values, transformational leaders may use charismatic strategies in drawing individuals to follow all of them (Hall et ing., 2009). Mr Faisal employed this design by using religious and social prices to motivate employees at company XYZ. He knew really well that, this kind of values are essential due to the fact they make individuals feel uplifted. Operating with him, all of us always felt linked to an increased purpose.
Transformational leadership may not be total without looking in transactional leadership. Avolio and Yammarino (2002) show that transactional leadership “focuses upon clarifying employees’ part and task needs and providing fans with positive plus negative rewards dependant on performance” (Kinicki and Kreitner, this year, p. 358). This particular leadership style meets well together with the information given by a lot of theories such while the Path-Goal Idea and Fiedler’s idea.
Typically the transformational theory is definitely very vital to the leader because it is outcomes are pushing provided it is definitely implemented well. Typically the said outcomes incorporate trust, admiration, dedication and respect intended for the leader. These kinds of are exactly typically the outcomes we knowledgeable at Company XYZ. They helped Mister Faisal lead properly and accomplish typically the goals he fixed for people. He built sure that they won his employees’ admiration, trust, admiration and loyalty. Seeing that already mentioned, they provided his personnel with rewards relating to their functionality and needs.
The Filled Range Model
The FRM of leadership contains both transformational and even transactional leadership. Relating to this authority style, the best equally transforms and drives his or your ex followers. Effective commanders are, therefore, these who incorporate these kinds of two leadership variations, they should always be both transformational and even transactional only the approach Mr Faisal utilized them at Firm XYZ. He equally transformed us straight into good workers healthy workers in just about any workplace and he in addition motivated us working with appropriate means pushing us to operate without feeling overburdened or exploited.
Conclusions concerning transformational theory
So considerably research supports typically the fact that men and women may be taught to be able to be transformational commanders, although, more is definitely needed in it is implementation. Some state that the idea truly does not address typically the moral character of your leader. But even so, this theory is definitely important whether it is employed well. Just demands little research to be able to show how it is usually effectively used. This is the reason we have to be able to look at typically the authentic theory.
The Real Leadership Theory
This idea attempts to incorporate tips in the earlier authority theories. It is definitely said to include descends from the life changing leadership when Avolio (2010) tried to be able to see if there could be two kinds involving transformational leaders, real and inauthentic, precisely what they simply called to as pseudo-transformational (Avolio, 2010, s. 1). Such some sort of leader is precisely love a transformational chief only that they lacks the meaning attribute of staying transformational.
Avolio (2005) for that reason, defined authentic authority as “knowing your self, being consistent, and even having a great as well seeing that a strength-based direction towards developing your self and others” (Avolio, 2005, p. 194). An authentic chief, consequently , knows precisely what he stands intended for, his values; they will only follow those actions which might be in line using his values and even seeks to formulate him self and others. This kind of describes well Mister Faisal; he recognized that for him or her to be viewed and be thought to be a leader, they had being regular in his behavior, words as effectively as values. This kind of enabled him to be able to receive support by us workers.
Yukl (2010) also agrees how the actions of real leaders are dependant upon their strong principles and beliefs. They do not lead because that they want favours or perhaps a liking by their followers. Its their values of which motivate them to be able to always do precisely what is right and even fair to all or any. Visibility, trust and admiration always prevail involving them and their very own followers. Workers with company XYZ have been always transparent, trustful and respectful mainly because they saw Mister Faisal his or her position model. The real leadership theory is definitely still new, yet , it has these who support that and others criticizing it just prefer the other concepts (Ehrhart & Klein, 2010, p. 1).
A conclusion on the real leadership theory
This idea proposes that authority should be most about being legitimate to oneself and even one’s values. The idea is still new, consequently , has a place penalized developed even more. It nevertheless points out a crucial aspect involving leadership, which in the event that used well, can easily help leaders prospect their followers properly.
I really believe that Mr Faisal has applied different theories of authority at company XYZ. It is noticeable in the leadership attributes he has recently been able to combine an effective authority style in firm XYZ that empowered him to acquire risks as chances for the firm to grow. They were capable of fit his leadership fashion with the condition that he seemed to be in. She has applied the leader-member romantic relationship approach in his leadership style. This saw workers accord him a lot of trust and respect. Tasks at company XYZ are highly structured because Mr Faisal has ensured that there is a strong relationship between him and the employees. I, therefore, strongly think that the contingency theories best explain his leadership at Company XYZ.
In these theories, an effort was made to identify those characteristics that define leaders. Theorists came up with trait theories on the premise that people who became leaders have inherent traits different from what others have. People are usually singled out as great leaders using their traits. They assume that people have intrinsic values that make them leaders. In trait theories, key behavioural or personality characteristics that are shared across the leadership spectrum are usually used to determine great and worse leaders.
Traits cannot be used in determining who is a leader and who is not, although many theorists agree that leadership traits can be shaped by environmental factors in which people are born making them leaders. Therefore, we can comfortably conclude that traits alone cannot determine a leader, but they are vital in helping leaders get the necessary leadership skills. There are indeed certain traits that made Mr Faisal into what he was, a good leader. He was authoritative, charismatic, considerate, and also a good listener. These traits are the ones that enabled him to earn the respect, trust, and loyalty from his workers and other stakeholders at company XYZ.
Seeing those trait theories did not define well who leaders are, theorists came up with behavioural theories. Here, it is strongly argued that leaders are made not born, that successfu may be defined and mastered. They ignore typically the inborn traits and even place what commanders can do. Proponents involving these theories firmly believe that in the event that success can get measured by behavior that could be described, in that case anyone can effortlessly act much like do well. Behavioural theories built a big switch from trait concepts in that that they imagine people can easily learn leadership alternatively of let’s assume that commanders can only get born. They usually tend to imply of which everyone has the opportunity of becoming some sort of leader from the attribute theories that usually tend to separate men and women basing on authority potential.
Behavioural theories refute those without authority traits a risk to become leaders. This kind of means that behavioural theories suggest of which anybody can identify and even isolate those behaviors t leadership malfunction in order that he or perhaps she can turn into a great chief. Therefore, both behavioural and trait concepts attempted to locate one best style involving leadership that can certainly be used inside of all situations, although using selected conditions or behaviours would not achieve that target. Mr Faisal is definitely adaptable to just about every situation that looks him, they are often alert to typically the social environment all-around him, and they also ambitious. They has incorporated these kinds of with sensitivity to employees; she has recognized mutual your authority in your niche, and even he is often concerned with their extramarital affairs. It has enabled typically the company to cultivate to be able to where it is currently (Doyle & Smith, i b?rjan p? tv?tusentalet, p. 1).
While it is viewed, leadership is some sort of diverse subject of which needs thorough exploration and understanding involving the theories to be able to apply it properly. All these concepts define who Mister Faisal was in accordance with how they charge him. We need seen that we now have selected behaviours and attributes that made Mister Faisal a fantastic chief; however, traits and even behaviour alone can easily not conclusively specify him. Fiedler’s idea of leadership can be useful for knowing a folks leadership style and even how he / she contains it together with the condition to fit the needs.
However, the LPC score in this kind of theory does certainly not give clear and even conclusive answers to be able to leadership. That stuff seriously typically the transformational along with the real leadership styles need best described which Mr Faisal seemed to be right from their definitions. They both suggest that effective leaders inspire their followers to work beyond expectations, exactly what Mr Faisal used to do. Authentic leaders add that leaders should aim at developing themselves and others thereby creating positive outcomes that benefit all. These theories still need more research; however, I think if combined, they can bring out good leadership in any leader.
I think that a combination of transformational and authentic leadership theories can best explain what effective leadership should be. If one follows these theories, then one is bound to get a leadership style that will produce significant changes in the organization in terms results because the resultant leadership will give people motivation, it will create trust, commitment and loyalty to their leader.
Leadership is diverse and therefore is understood differently by many. In this case, I have used Yukl’s definition of leadership because it brings out leadership as a process. It also tackles the issues that I think are essential to those leaders who want to fulfil their leadership responsibilities. Different individuals have different ways of influencing others; these different ways constitute what is called leadership styles. There are many leadership styles as we have shown through the many theories on leadership. We have discussed Fiedler’s contingency model where Fiedler believes that leaders are task or relationship motivated. This two combine to produce a leadership style that can withstand change.
Situational leadership theory was an expansion on Fiedler’s theory made by Hersey and Blanchard and looks at follower readiness and willingness to carry out assigned tasks. The Vroom-Yetton expectancy model tried to establish the extent of participation that leaders need from their followers before making important decisions. The last contingency theory we looked at was the path-goal theory which looks at task performance and human motivation as determinants of effective leadership (Path, 2010, p. 1). This theory suggests that leaders should remove any obstacle in way of goal attainment and give followers support by guiding them along the way to achieve organizational goals.
Transformational leadership theory says that leadership should create a positive change among the subordinates in a mutual way whereby the interests of each are taken care of. The authentic theory defined an authentic leader as one who knows what he stands for, his values, one that only pursues those actions that are in line with his values, and seeks to develop himself and others (Miner, 2007, p. 194). Both behavioural and trait theories attempted to find one best style of leadership that can be used in all situations, but using selected situations or behaviours did not achieve this goal.
In this paper, we have looked at theories that explain who a great leader is concerning the leadership employed by Mr Faisal in company XYZ. Theories looked at including the contingency theories of leadership, which included Fiedler’s theory, situational leadership theory, Vroom-Yetton expectancy theory, path-goal theory. All contingency theories argue that there is no single style that can define who a leader is, but leaders use many leadership style contingent to the situations; the transformational theory of leadership and full-range model.
These argue that individuals can be taught or transformed into any type of leader; the authentic theory of leadership argues that leadership is all about being true to oneself and one’s values; trait and behavioural theories of leadership attempted to find one best style of leadership that can be used in all situations, however never works in reality. Therefore, it is only the transformational and authentic theories of leadership that seem the best in defining who a great leader is despite that fact that they still require more research on them.
Anon. (2008) Organizational Behavior, Edition 1 . University of Leicester, Cheltenham: Learning Resources.
Avolio, B. (2005) Leadership development in balance: Made Born . New Jersey, Lawrence Erlbaum Associate.
Avolio, B. (2010). Pursuing authentic leadership development . Boston, Harvard Business School.
Ehrhart & Klein. (2001) Predicting follower’s preference for charismatic leadership: the influence of follower values and personality. The Leadership Quarterly 12(1), 153-179.
Fiedler, F. (1977) Job engineering for effective leadership: A New Approach. New York, Cengage Learning.
Fiedler, F. E., & Garcia, J. E., (1987) New Approaches to leadership: Cognitive resources and organizational performance . New York, John Wiley.
Gitman, L and McDaniel, C. (2008) The Future of Business: The Essentials . New York, Cengage Learning.
Griffin, R. W. (2007) Fundamentals of Management . New York, Cengage Learning.
Hall et al. (2009) Transformational Leadership: The Transformation of Managers and Associates . University of Florida, IFAS Extension HR020.
Kinicki, A., & Kreitner, R., (2009) Organizational Behavior: key concepts, skills & best practices , 4th ed. Boston, McGraw-Hill Irwin.
Kritsonis, A. (2004) Leadership in Organizations: National Implications . International Journal of Scholarly Academic Intellectual Diversity 8(1), 1-8.
Leadership Theories. (2004) Leadership theories: An overview . International Journal of Scholarly Academic Intellectual Diversity , 8(1), 1 – 8.
Miner, J. B. (2007) Organizational behavior: From theory to practice . New York, M. E. Sharpe.
Path. (2011) Path-Goal Theory of Leadership . Web.
Plunkett, A. A. (2007) Ie Mgmt Meeting and Exceeding Cust Expectation . New York, Cengage Learning.
Prosser, S. (2007) To be a Servant-Leader . New York, Paulist Press.
Schermerhorn, J. (2010) Management . New York, John Willy and Sons.
Vroom-Yetton. (n. d. ) Vroom-Yetton-Jago: Normative Decision Model . Web.
Yukl, G. (2010) Leadership in Organizations , 7th ed. New Jersey, Pre