Parenting Styles Indifferent, Indulgent, Authoritarian, And Authoritative

Parenting Styles: Indifferent, Indulgent, Authoritarian, and Authoritative

Research has shown that parenting plays a significant role in the optimal growth and development of a child. In that regard, the style of parenting adopted determines the quality of parent-child relationship. Studies conducted in the field of developmental studies have shown that parenting style impacts the mood and temperament of children in different ways as they develop from childhood into adulthood. There are four main parenting styles: authoritarian, indulgent, indifferent, and authoritative. This paper will analyze four main styles, namely indifferent, indulgent, authoritarian, and authoritative parenting styles.

Several studies have been conducted on the influence of these styles on child rearing. This paper will discuss the four parenting styles and provide an in-depth explanation of each, what they consist of, and the positive and negative results that they produce in child rearing. In addition, it will explain the categories of socioeconomic factors that contribute to each one of them and their impact on self-control, self-regulation, and discipline within children. Finally, reasons will be provided for the most beneficial parenting style in child rearing.

Indifferent Parenting Style

This parenting style is also referred to as uninvolved parenting, and it is characterized by a parent’s unavailability, unresponsiveness, and neglect. Parents who adopt this style make few to no demands of their children as they are busy focusing on other matters (Tashjian, 2018). They are dismissive and in extreme cases, they can be completely neglectful. There is little emotional involvement or connection, and children never learn to relate properly with individuals (Hoskins, 2014).

Therefore, the psychological needs of the particular youngsters are unfulfilled. The particular parents give fundamental needs, whilst they are uninvolved within their children’s life. Indifferent parents are usually emotionally distant, provide little or simply no supervision, may prevent youngsters intentionally, plus have few needs for behavior or even performance (American Mental Association, 2018). These people do not go to school events, these people express little like and affection, plus they focus even more on their issues than the well being of the children.

Effects on Children

Children suffer significantly because of the parents’ unavailability, and thus, they are usually compelled to supply with regard to themselves and cope with their emotions without having support. They understand independence, and because a result, create a fear of based on others (Riggio, 2014). These kids are in numerous cases emotionally set aside, exhibit violent habits during puberty, plus experience difficulties within dealing with stress, fear, and tension that result through to the lack of parental support (Sarwar, 2016).

Moreover, they are susceptible to irresponsible behaviors. Research has shown that the children of uninvolved parents perform poorly in almost every area of their lives. For example , they display poor social skills and academic performance, as well as deficits in emotional skills and cognition (Sarwar, 2016). One of the major challenges of indifferent parenting is the children’s inability to form attachments in life. In that regard, forming lasting relationships and friendships is difficult. Fear and anxiety emanate from social isolation and the lack of support from parents and relatives.

Socioeconomic Factors

The indifferent parenting style is mostly adopted by parents who experience financial, emotional, and social challenges that wrap them up in an endless cycle of problems (Hoskins, 2014). In addition, they are so busy struggling with other problems such as depression and being overworked that they have little or no time for their children. Some parents might also be struggling with problems such as drug and substance abuse and other addictive behaviors that render them incapable of performing their parental duties. In such cases, the children are compelled to act as their parents’ caregivers.

Indulgent Parenting Style

Indulgent (permissive) parenting is characterized by low demands, a few expectations, and high responsiveness. Indulgent mother and father are very caring and often take action like their children’s friends. They offer the few guidelines plus rules, and these people usually do not expect their own children to act responsibly (Tashjian, 2018). Instead of carefully monitoring their children’s behaviors and activities, they give all of them the liberty to perform what they would like (Sarwar, 2016).

They are easygoing and rarely impose any kind of structure or even schedule. Permissive mother and father think that children are usually supposed to become given the independence to learn plus explore the globe by themselves (Tashjian, 2018). In this regard, these people make no efforts to discipline their own children. They think about the wrong decisions that will children make like a form of studying.

Permissive mother and father allow their kids to make choices by themselves, may make use of rewards (gifts, meals, and toys) in order to coerce children in to behaving in certain ways, have few standards of behavior, and rarely enforce any type of consequences (American Psychological Association, 2018). They believe that it is better for their children to be free than responsible. (Hoskins, 2014) Moreover, they do not punish them when they misbehave. These actions are aimed at receiving appreciation and love. In many cases, permissive parents give their children freedom and material things as a way of compensating for what they did not receive during their childhood (Hoskins, 2014). This parenting approach encourages immaturity, irresponsibility, and impulsiveness as children get what they want.

Effects on Children

Researchers have revealed that indulgent parenting is an overly relaxed approach to rearing children. Therefore, it inhibits self-control, self-regulation, and discipline (Sarwar, 2016). Indulgent parenting has few rules, demands, and expectations. Therefore, children usually struggle with self-regulation and self-control (Hoskins, 2014). These children are usually insecure, lack self-discipline, and may be self-involved (Sarwar, 2016).

In addition, they make uninformed decisions, perform poorly in school, display aggression and emotional incompetence, and experience increased risk of substance abuse. The lack of parental guidance results in an inability to manage time and habits (Sarwar, 2016). For example, they may watch unregulated television or eat excessively. They embrace these behaviors because their parents never teach them the importance of limits and moderation.

The lack of demands and expectations has a negative effect on the development of children. The concept of self-discipline is not instilled in them, and as a result, they may be unruly in school and show low motivation (American Psychological Association, 2018). Research has connected permissive parenting in order to risky and irresponsible behaviors. For instance, it was associated with underage drinking plus drug use. Some other negative effects consist of a sense associated with entitlement, poor behavioral instinct control, and energetic anger and disappointment.

Despite the many negative results, indulgent parenting offers positive outcomes too. For instance, children are more resourceful and creative because they have the freedom to learn and explore the world on their own without any adherence to rules or structure (Sarwar, 2016). In addition, they have high self-esteem because of the awareness that their actions do not affect their parents’ affection. Children also display exemplary communication skills because they learn self-expression by saying what they want without the fear of punishment (Riggio, 2014).

Socioeconomic Factors

Indulgent parenting emanates from the existence of socioeconomic inequality. Parents are not worried about their children’s future and as a result, they allow them to follow their inclinations (Hoskins, 2014). They believe that learning from personal experiences works more effectively than imposing rules for their children. In addition , parents could benefit from allowing their children learn from their own experiences.

Authoritarian Parenting Style

One of the most important roles of parents in child rearing would be to socialize children to important values and expectations. The effective accomplishment of this role is based on the amount of control exerted by parents over their children. The authoritarian parenting style is the most controlling approach, and it is characterized by little nurturing, high demands, low responsiveness, and lots associated with psychological control (Darling, 2014).

It leads to the particular stifling of children’s autonomy, thinking, plus creativity. Authoritarian mother and father focus on disciplining youngsters rather compared to teaching them exactly how to control on their own and manage their own behaviors (Hoskins, 2014). They believe that will a child ought to adhere to expert and follow guidelines and commands without having deviation. Punishment is their preferred means of providing feedback.

Authoritarian parents exhibit several characteristics. They are very demanding and unresponsive, they do not express warmth or nurturance to their children, they utilize punishment without any positive reinforcement, and they do not trust their children to make good choices or behave appropriately without control (Tashjian, 2018). In addition , they deny their children the freedom to choose or make decisions, and they use harsh methods of punishment to reinforce certain behavior that they deem appropriate.

Effects on Children

The authoritarian parenting style has been linked with several negative outcomes. Children tend to conform easily because of the fear of punishment, they struggle with self-control and self-regulation, they experience difficulties in social settings, and they exhibit aggressive behaviors when they are away from their parents (Sarwar, 2016). They often have low-self-esteem and associate love with obedience. Other negative outcomes include poor social skills, a lack of self-discipline, indecisiveness, insecurity and hostility, poor performance in school, and increased risk of depression (Riggio, 2014).

Authoritarian parenting has positive outcomes too. Children raised under these settings are disciplined, responsible, and clear about their goals (Hoskins, 2014). Authoritarian parents emphasize discipline, rules, adherence to authority, and the consequences of breaking rules. In that regard, children grow up knowing that disobedience attracts severe consequences (Sarwar, 2016). They learn to obey and behave well in order to avoid punishment. The constant following of rules acclimatizes them to positive habits that they carry into adulthood. Authoritarian parents highly value structure and instruction (Hoskins, 2014). Therefore , their children grow knowing what to do to achieve their goals or complete tasks.

Socioeconomic Factors

This style of parenting is mainly adopted by parents with low socioeconomic status as a way of encouraging their children to become resilient, disciplined, self-reliant and autonomous (Hoskins, 2014). These parents understand that disciplining their children and teaching them to follow the rules and structure is the most effective way to guarantee their future success. Authoritarian parenting is motivated by high economic inequality that compels parents to adopt intensive measures in order to enhance their children’s drive for achievement through hard work, and prevent them from engaging in risky behaviors such as drug and substance abuse (Hoskins, 2014).

Authoritative Parenting Style

Authoritative parenting is different from other styles of child rearing due to the fact it is reasonable in all kid rearing modalities. This is widely explained as a stability between discipline, psychological control and autonomy (Darling, 2014). This is characterized simply by modest demands upon children and large responsiveness (Hoskins, 2014). Authoritative parents possess high expectations concerning behavior and accomplishment. Nevertheless , unlike severe parents, they offer the necessary sources and support required to attain success. They may be caring, affectionate, express nurturance, encourage independence, plus administer reasonable plus consistent discipline (Riggio, 2014).

Authoritative parents share typical traits: they pay attention to their children, motivate them to talk about possible solutions in order to problems or problems, encourage independence and individualistic reasoning, and they place limits and expectations of behavior (Darling, 2014).

Imitation is one of the learning strategies applied by children. Loving, happy, and disciplined parents nurture disciplined, loving, and happy children (Riggio, 2014). Authoritative parents encourage communication by explaining the rationale behind specific rules and giving their children an opportunity to respond or ask questions. Proper understanding of rules enables children to complete tasks without deviation or resistance.

In addition, soliciting the opinion of children allows them to learn how to communicate effectively (Hoskins, 2014). Authoritative parents are also involved in the growth and progress of their children. They provide the support necessary for the completion of tasks because they understand that their children have weaknesses and limitations. Therefore, their expectations are reasonable and match the strengths of their children (Hoskins, 2014).

Criticism and praise are key components of authoritative parenting. Parents understand that providing feedback is important in a child’s growth and development. They give constructive criticism when a child misbehaves and provide praise when they behave appropriately (Riggio, 2014). Authoritative parents also give children freedom, but monitor their activities. Freedom helps children to learn independence and monitoring is aimed at correcting them when they make the wrong decisions (Darling, 2014).

Effects on Children

Several research studies have come to the conclusion that authoritative parenting is the best approach to child rearing because it is balanced. Children tend to be more capable and successful. The children of authoritative parents have good social abilities, they are confident, possess better psychological control and rules, and tend in order to exhibit happier agencement (Sarwar, 2016). Kids develop these characteristics because their mother and father work as role versions who possess good behaviors that these people internalize. Additionally , constant discipline and tips shape their anticipation and teach all of them to be self-disciplined.

Authoritative mother and father usually exhibit higher emotional understanding plus control that is usually influential in training children self-reliance (Riggio, 2014). The good outcomes of self-sufficiency include high self-pride, self-regulation, self-control, plus self-confidence.

Authoritative parenting has bad outcomes when it is intense or when there is the lack of stability. In extreme instances, families may turn out to be overly determined by guidelines for the achievement of tasks. Consequently , children become puzzled and indecisive whenever they encounter situations that not involve guidelines (Sarwar, 2016). However, a lack associated with balance leads to the particular development of lower self-esteem in kids because parents turn out to be demanding and unconcerned. Authoritative parenting can also cause rebelliousness in children due to the fact seeking their views on all issues could make all of them over-confident and generate a feeling associated with being too essential (Riggio, 2014). The particular style is inadequate in cases exactly where a child will be stubborn or pompous owing to exterior influences such while peer pressure.

Socioeconomic Factors

The authoritative parenting design is mainly used by parents through high socioeconomic standing experience: financial stability plus higher education amounts. The primary goal will be to mold kids in a method that fits the particular parents’ notion associated with success (Hoskins, 2014). For example, effort and discipline are believed two of the particular most important achievement ingredients. This raising a child style is primarily adopted by the particular modern middle-class family members. Parents set guidelines for their kids, but understand the particular challenges that these people are likely in order to encounter in their own efforts to follow along with all those rules.

The Most Beneficial Raising a child Style

The respected parenting style is among the most beneficial in kid rearing. The foregoing discourse on the 4 main child showing approaches has outlined good and unfavorable outcomes of every. Authoritative recieve more good outcomes and fewer unfavorable outcomes compared to some other styles. Functions due to the fact an focus on conversation helps children in order to develop cognitive plus social skills, and oldsters nurture and help their children (Hoskins, 2014).

Moreover, parents act because role models that influence youngsters within developing self-confidence, self-regulation, and self-esteem. This is important in order to maintain a stability between pushing kids to be successful plus providing them with freedom with regard to exploration and self-learning. Authoritative parenting will be different from all other design because it amounts the modalities of demandingness and responsiveness, thus facilitating the proper growth and development of children (Hoskins, 2014).

In the authoritarian approach, parents are highly demanding and unresponsive. Indulgent parents are not demanding but they are responsive. Indifferent parents are neither demanding nor responsive. They allow their children to act and behave without too much control or monitoring (Darling, 2014). Authoritative parenting is beneficial because children who are raised by authoritative parents implement the same child rearing style when rearing their children.


The major goal of parenting is to rear children who grow into adults who possess character and competence. Parenting is a difficult task because of the differences in parents’ temperaments, value systems, and beliefs. Parenting can be divided into four main styles based on the level of parents’ responsiveness and demandingness. These styles include indifferent, indulgent, authoritarian, and authoritative. Indifferent parents are emotionally unavailable, unresponsive, and neglectful. They take no interest in their children’s welfare. Indulgent parents are responsive and undemanding. They allow their children to learn through exploration and personal experiences. Authoritarian parents are highly demanding and display low responsiveness.

They believe that choices have consequences, and they mainly focus on punishing their children as a way of instilling discipline. Authoritative parents create a balance between being demanding and being responsive. Their demands are reasonable and provide the support and resources necessary for the attainment of goals. The indifferent, indulgent, and authoritarian parenting styles inhibit the development of self-control, self-regulation, and discipline within children. In contrast, the authoritative style encourages self-control, self-regulation, and discipline within children.


American Psychological Association. (2018). Parenting styles. American Psychological Association. Web.

Darling, N. (2014). Authoritative versus authoritarian parenting style. Psychology Today. Web.

Hoskins, D. H. (2014). Consequences of parenting on adolescent outcomes. Societies, 4, 506-531.

Riggio, R. E. (2014). How does your parenting style affect your kids? Psychology Today. Web.

Sarwar, S. (2016). Influence of parenting style on children’s behavior. Journal of Education and Educational Development, 3(2), 222-249.

Tashjian, S. (2018). Parenting styles and child behavior. Psychology in Action. Web.

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