Terrorism: Vital Issues
International Terrorism and the particular Essential Elements associated with the Phenomenon associated with Terrorism
In the particular twenty-first century, whenever most controversial circumstances and disagreements amongst individual communities plus even countries continue to be resolved through equipped conflicts, the issue of terrorism will be particularly acute. The particular evolution of weaponry and the progress technology have resulted in a significant influx of resources in order to extremists who, within turn, make use of the most recent achievements of equipment and ammunition. Based to Combs (2017), terrorism is a good international concept given that not just one region will be at likelihood of assaults, but nearly every nation and the globe community as the whole are below constant threat. The particular author also records that this trend is just not an specifically political issue yet instead might be credited to a variety of spheres – military, legislative, plus others (Combs, 2017). The reason with regard to this assumption will be the consequences that will terrorist attacks have. Not only legislation enforcement agencies are usually obliged in order to extremists’ activities and stop their own crimes against mankind. Other interested boards should also take part in the fighting and controlling such a phenomenon. Therefore, terrorist threats may be described from the perspective of international concern.
When considering terrorism from the standpoint of the critical elements to which extremists resort, it is possible to single out several conditions that accompany mass attacks. In particular, Combs (2017) mentions such concepts as “violence, audience, and a mood of fear” (p. 43). The first component is an essential attribute of any aggression, including terrorists. The public is generally the critical focus on of attacks, as well as the number of human victims determines the severity of a particular act. Finally, the fear that extremists sow among the population helps them create panic, thereby increasing danger. All these elements constitute the modern concept of terrorism and serve as the markers of criminal acts.
Role and Impact of Ideology on Terrorism
The forms of terrorism that are manifested in the modern world may have different backgrounds – religious, political, territorial, and others. However, as practice shows, the role and influence of a particular ideology on the emergence of extremist ideas are significant. Combs (2017) gives various characteristics of crimes against humanity and bases her classification on specific ideological forms. For instance, anarchism as one of the manifestations of an antisocial movement is the idea that calls for the destructurization of the system of power and total self-government. Quite often, such calls are accompanied by massive terrorist attacks aimed at disrupting the existing order. Another clear example of extremist ideology is Nazism that originated in the last century. According to Combs (2017), modern neo-Nazism is based on similar principles of the superiority of one group of people over others and promotes the policy of genocide. The role of ideology, in this case, is dominant, and it is the crucial cause of aggression.
Historical examples of uprisings and riots against the current system of government are the reflection of specific ideological trends comparable to terrorist ones. Combs (2017) mentions the French, Russian, American, and other revolutions when rebels fought not so much for certain rights and freedoms but certain convictions. An ability to influence the masses and direct aggression demonstrates extremist leaders’ high organizational skills. Today, when armed conflicts occur periodically in different parts of the world, many of them can also be called ideologically directed, for instance, in the context of religion. Therefore, the role and impact of specific beliefs on adherence to terrorist ideals have been significant throughout the entire period of human development.
Criminals vs . Crusaders
The psychological portrait of terrorists often reflects inadequate people with a shaky psyche. Combs (2017) calls this category of extremists “crazies” and argues that people belonging to this type may not understand the nature of their actions themselves and cannot explain the motives encouraging them to participate in such criminal activities (p. 131). The behavior of the other two categories, criminals and crusaders, has a more logical explanation. Both of these psychological images of terrorists may be found today.
Criminals are the category of terrorists whose fundamental goal is personal gain not justified by any shared goals or beliefs. According to Combs (2017), extremists of this type are often ready to negotiate with security forces for the sake of saving their own lives or obtaining safe shelters. They have a strong desire to survive, and any acts of self-sacrifice are unacceptable to them. Therefore, the methods of their attacks often involve a genuine threat in order to protect themselves from possible explosions or accidental deaths.
Crusaders, as another mental kind of terrorists, make up numerous categories. Spines (2017) states that will within the twenty-first hundred years, this group associated with extremists may be the biggest since most offences committed by all of them are based upon ideological beliefs, with regard to instance, religious types. The key purpose of their activities is a “higher cause” – the element that encourages all of them to abandon their own individual significance plus devote lives in order to the struggle in order to acquire a precise plus desired goal (Combs, 2017, p. 134). Crusaders almost in no way seek to safeguard their lives because of their belief in the particular significance of personal quests. Thus, the regarded as psychological portraits show the in the particular motives and methods to committing terrorist acts.
The idea of state terrorism has been reached in the contemporary world, and the particular implications of like a phenomenon are usually detrimental to the particular integrity of personal nations. According in order to Combs (2017), this particular form of legal activity involves extremist actions supported simply by the federal government of the particular country or even its unique parti and aimed in fighting other elites or specific users of sections. This particular trend is the threat to nationwide security since all those countries which are included in state terrorism tend to possess an unstable political situation. Combs (2017) identifies two forms of this type of extremism – internal and external and delimits these concepts with the boundaries of intervention. If the crimes of the authorities are committed against people or communities of the same country, this category of terrorism is internal. When governments wage a fierce struggle against elites and citizens of other countries, this characterizes the external type of extremism. Both classes are dangerous phenomena and are detrimental to people’s safety.
When mentioning the examples of state terrorism from historical practice, there are several common types of such crimes. Today, when technology has developed significantly, ruling elites can use high-performance weapons and other methods of extermination. For instance, Combs (2017) highlights the situation in Syria where civilians were attacked by chemical weapons. Also, the author cites other forms of state terrorism, for example, the practice of repression in the USSR, the policy associated with genocide supported within Sudan, and a few other cases (Combs, 2017). Each one of these offences are direct infractions of human privileges and are undesirable in a civil society. Nevertheless, centered on historical recommendations, governments’ actions might have different types and methods associated with aggression.
Terrorism Inc. and the particular Methods of Funding Terrorism
The collection of terrorists in to separate networks is becoming widespread today; it really is enough just in order to maintain interaction along with like-minded people within different parts associated with the entire world to produce a global danger. Cooperation is the particular type of organizing terrorist attacks, which enables extremists to count number on supporters consist of regions, thereby building an expanded program. As Combs (2017) remarks, such the principle of social networking helps them in order to maintain the tactical planning of huge terrorist operations plus contact with the particular members of parti abroad. The writer cites samples of like coalitions since the Quebec, canada , Liberation Front, the particular Turkish People’s Freedom Army, along with other businesses recognized as extremist ones (Combs, 2017). A vivid reflection of the interaction of these groupings was the international terrorism congress in Germany in 1986, which usually brought together in least 500 associates of terrorist businesses (Combs, 2017). Consequently , it can become noted that extremist networks are created and expanded constructions.
The internationalization of terrorism offers led to the particular emergence of source supply chains that will support the actions of extremist organizations. According to Spines (2017), the support of individual prohibited organizations may happen through both person stakeholders’ private opportunities and a solitary fund. As a good example, the article author mentions hawala, a good unique approach to Islamic bank transfers targeted at collecting and disseminating money among individual Al-Qaeda groups and the branches (Combs, 2017). Organized cash moves come from trafficking in drugs, weaponry, along with other goods that will are officially prohibited for sale. The well-established system associated with financing allows keeping a stably large preparedness of extremists and creates a good additional threat in order to the world local community and the security of civilians.
Methods of Terrorist Training
Terrorist coaching is a significant phase within the activities associated with extremists who create attack plans plus build crime techniques. Combs (2017) information that today, numerous groups have sufficient sources to create distinctive sites where the particular members of this kind of organizations sharpen their own skills in problems near to real types. Moreover, in a number of countries, there are usually individual camps exactly where necessary resources are usually available to have out the great coaching of extremists. While Combs (2017) comments, such sites can be found not only inside regions with increased terrorist activity, for example, in the Center East but additionally within such countries since the UK, the UNITED STATES, along with other states along with a strong economic climate and a steady position on the particular world stage. This particular indicates that this danger of the pass on of terrorism will be substantial, and just about any region is within potential danger.
As training places, terrorists study technical attack patterns, understand to use weaponry of different information, evaluate the variety of damage via specific attacks, plus perform exercise routines. Given that the types associated with extremist activities are usually different, separate organizations are assigned in order to particular tasks. For instance, according to Combs (2017), those terrorists involved in assassination activities and kidnapping undergo distinctive training procedures. Also, participants in extremist organizations learn to interact with one another, developing communication systems in covert conditions, and thinking through information transfer chains. The attack of September 11th, 2001, was the result of careful planning and engaging a large number of extremists to cause as many human victims as possible (Combs, 2017). Thus, training sites are virtual objects for terrorists, and the detection of these places is one of the priorities of law enforcement agencies.
Role of the Media in Terrorism
The role of the media in contemporary terrorism is significant due to the fact that almost all multiple attacks are covered in the press, thereby drawing additional attention to this phenomenon. Combs (2017) note that extremists themselves benefit from such interest since the publicity of coverage allows paying attention to specific groups and their requirements as part of their criminal activities. The media serves as a platform to reflect actual terrorist activities and often acts as favorable channels for the transmission of extremist ideas. Also, Combs (2017) brings the concept of destabilization to which criminal groups resort. The purpose of this approach is to sow panic among the population and create appropriate public unrest in order to make people question the quality of the security provided by law enforcement agencies. All these objectives may be achieved successfully by covering particular facts in the media.
The concept of disinformation is also one of the tools that abet terrorists. Regardless of the degree of outgoing threat or the outcomes that a particular attack may cause, deliberately heightening the effect of danger may contribute to destabilizing a social situation, thereby dramatizing things. Therefore, many news media are often involved in scandals associated with the suspicion of collaboration with extremists. According to Combs (2017), even though there are no intentions to interact with terrorists, some press resources may act in the interest of criminals by making waves excessively and engaging in propaganda. As a result, many extremist groups use the right of journalists and correspondents to access the sites associated with incidents and produce seen large-scale assaults, thereby heightening stress and fear amongst the population.
International Law because an Instrument associated with Countering Terrorism
The issue of terrorism is recognized simply by a global legal local community like a danger that will requires involving substantial forces to reverse it and get rid of criminal organizations. However, according in order to Combs (2017), nowadays, there are several gaps within addressing this issue. In particular, deficiency of legislative authority accountable for regulating the steps aimed at dealing with extremism is a good omission. Consequently, the particular judicial system in the international degree is also not really sufficiently developed in order to take corresponding actions to bring terrorists to justice. Nevertheless , there are qualified authorities, for example, INTERPOL, whose actions are targeted at determining and eliminating harmful criminal groups, which includes extremist ones. Furthermore, international legal files exist, determining the particular nature of strategies to protect people and containing each articles on punishments for terrorist offences and the way of ensuring the protection of noncombatants. The particular Geneva Convention consists of a spectrum associated with rules addressing these types of issues (Combs, 2017). Therefore, despite the particular lack of a solitary controlling board plus judicial background, related regulations regarding the recognition of extremist exercise are maintained.
In addition, presently there are special solutions that are produced to control terrorist threats in a variety of types of their outward exhibition. Combs (2017) says that to fight air, sea, along with other forms of piracy, international conventions possess been held, addressing the most pushing issues of extremist attacks and the particular methods for preventing all of them. Activities aimed in reducing risks in order to the civilian populace are a substantial facet of the floor security forces, plus today, many hard work is made to keep track of and prevent any get in touch with among different users of criminal organizations. Each one of these facts state towards the concern of the world legal community about the threat of terrorism.
Use of Pressure to Counter-Terrorism
High-quality national security may be the evidence of the particular government’s in risks originating from extremist organizations. Unique boards produced to fight structured crime within the almost all dangerous forms associated with its manifestation are usually in just about all says with a normal army. Combs (2017) lists individual plus elite troops which are world-renowned for their own thorough training associated with agents and the particular high level of the military service. Particularly, the British Specific Forces SAS, the particular American SWAT quick response service, along with other competent quick-assignment models perform the functionality of countering risks, including terrorist assaults. Along with extremists, national security companies develop strategies that will include countermeasures dealing with the issues associated with extremist activity plus plan offensive operations to identify and eliminate criminal groups and places of their deployment. In some cases, this approach helps to prevent danger through the elements of surprise and force.
As a rule, reinforced squads have high-class training and access to innovative weapons developments that increase the overall potential of these troops. According to Combs (2017), strike forces are not assigned to perform routine operations. The power structures of a reinforced profile act in emergency situations, and their professionalism is the direct evidence of a specific country’s competence in solving the issue of terrorism. Combs (2017) argues that today, “the industrialized democracies of Western Europe and North America” are the most affected by terrorists, and the special forces of these countries are sufficiently advanced and prepared (p. 464). Therefore, judging by modern experience, counteracting extremism is not easy, but due to the involvement of expert militaries, the level of national protection increases, and terrorists’ plans are challenging by opposition through state enforcement companies.
Security Steps to Counter-Terrorism
Engaging competent authorities are usually struggling with terrorists, and planning targeted at countering extremists are usually indispensable conditions with regard to national security steps. Combs (2017) says various legal assignments and acts of nations where there are usually threats of assaults and cites the particular example of Italian language, British, Canadian, along with other initiatives that manage actions to offer appropriate protection attempts. Also, the writer compares the techniques associated with different states pertaining to addressing national protection issues and states that democratic ideals and freedoms would be the fundamental objects that such activities are usually directed (Combs, 2017). Consequently, domestic plus international centers with regard to combating extremist assault develop under the particular influence of present trends, and fresh types of investigative procedures are created regularly.
In addition in order to intensified counter-terrorism in the national degree, deeper measures will also be applied. According in order to Combs (2017), a few organizations have personal crisis management techniques that allow all of them to assess the particular significance of specific surgery and determine the particular critical areas associated with work. Any accusations arising from qualified authorities are not really ignored, and normal reporting to the government is mandatory. Are Not only Special Forces engaged to ensure security but also specific infrastructures that are called critical (Combs, 2017). They include a whole range of information systems and platforms that help to broadcast helpful information and record particular dialogues, files, and other forms of communication that may seem questionable. These cyber-based channels are the advanced ways of maintaining control over those extremists who are under suspicion because they are embedded in banking, transportation, telecommunications, and other services (Combs, 2017). As a result, a sufficiently reliable base is formed, which allows competent authorities to track terrorist activities timely.
Combs, C. C. (2017). Terrorism in the twenty-first century (8th ed. ). New York, NY: Routledge.