West Island Line Project of Mass Transit Railway
For my assignment, I have chosen the Mass Transit Railway (MTR), a Hong Kong-based company. Out of the various ongoing projects, I plan to do the Project Management Report on the West Island Line (WIL) project. The length of the route will be about 3 km, and the capacity and frequency of the train shall be 85, 000 passengers per hour per direction.
Principles of Project Management
Background and Principles of Project Management
Gray & Larson (2008) define a project as a special entity that aims at a previously defined goal, consisting of complex, interrelated tasks, and is limited by time, costs and its scope. Both the contractor and the client aim for the goal in pursuance of strategic targets. The goal of the MTR West Island line is to provide a fast, efficient and reliable commuter service to residents of the Western District of Hong Kong Island (MTR, 2013).
Gray & Larson (2008, 26) state that each project is unique, as it has never been done before and is unlikely to be repeated. Project objectives are determined by the parameters of time, cost, and quality (also referred to as performance). The time scheduled for the completion of the WIL project is just under five years, from July 2009, which marks the beginning of construction, until the end of 2014, when the project is to be completed in its entirety (MTR, 2013). They are also limited by costs, as resources are limited, which restricts each project to a limited budget. The cost of the entire WIL Project is estimated to be HK$ 15. 4 billion, and by the date of its completion, it is estimated that it will have employed 6, 600 people (MTR, 2013).
Time, cost and quality/performance have to be balanced for the most favourable outcome. Thus, time, cost, and quality/performance are a triangle of objectives, referred to as “the magic triangle of project management”. If one is affected, the two other objectives will also be affected. However , the quality/performance objective is often considered paramount (Lock 1996, 9). The government intends the West Island Line to provide a dependable railway service to Hong Kong Island. It will serve a population of 200, 000 people in the Western District, by offering them access to Sai Ying Pun Station within 8 minutes, and seamless access to Tsim Sha Tsui station in Kowloon (on the Hong Kong-mainland) within 14 minutes. Furthermore, the majority of the residents of the Western District will walk to access the WIL.
Viability of Projects
The West Island Line is a viable project, and this assertion is supported by the results of several studies, based on successful projects in Hong Kong, which used the tunnel excavation methods that are currently being used in the construction of the West Island Line. An example of such a viable project is the Island West Transfer Station, which is an underground waste transfer facility on Hong Kong Island. At the time of its completion, it was the largest ever excavated rock cavern in Hong Kong, with a length of 60 metres, a width of 27 metres and a height of 12 metres (CEDD 2009, 9). The construction of such a large cavern on Hong Kong Island, near the site of the West Island Line, proved that it would be viable to excavate railway tunnels on Hong Kong Island.
Project Viability is assessed through the process of Project Viability Screening, which is a merit-based analysis, which ranks projects using a set of project viability criteria (Orr & Tchou, 2009, 19). It consists of seven steps, as stated below:
The West Island Line (WIL) was viable at its inception in 2009. This is attested to by the endorsement by the Hong Kong Executive Council of the funding schedule for the WIL Project (HK$15. 4 billion over five years) in May 2009, and the subsequent funding approval given by the Legislative Council in July of the identical year (MTR, 2009). Consequently , the pertinent authorities were comfortable that the job could be created within its timetabled cost right by the start. Inside of terms of getting together with the project’s performance/quality specifications, it seemed to be anticipated that typically the West Island Lines would be competent at transporting 85, 1000 passengers per hour or so per direction. While the West Area, Line can be the extension of typically the MTR Island Series, as Mass Flow Railway (MTR) would likely operate it, typically the performance/quality aspects involving the project have been also considered feasible from the start out (MTR, 2013).
Systems and even Procedures
The systems and even procedures found in typically the project are fixed out below.
Initially, typically the Project Agreement seemed to be signed between MTR and the govt with the Hong Kong Special Administrative Place (SAR) last season (MTR, 2013). The willpower of project breakthrough followed this. Typically the appendix outlines typically the process of picking key events, games, definitions, deadlines, and even decision points of which framed the job. These milestones will be define in Appendix 1 ) In venture together with the associate job manager and typically the control s?lger, typically the project manager, discovered the intermediate (short-term) milestones, that happen to be displayed in Appendix several. From this level, the control consideration manager developed some sort of detailed schedule for each and every control account. Typically the Project Manager offers details work and even milestones related to be able to specific work plans and allocates these people to sub-contractors. That they were then incorporated into the project breakthrough. The project administrator then approved typically the project detail timetable, and the job schedule baseline seemed to be drafted and included into the game timetable in the timetable baseline to kind the project Time-Phased Cost Profile, inside of conformance with AGCA (2003, 11).
Typically the construction of typically the tunnel from Sheung Wan Station by means of Sai Ying Juga Station and Kennedy Town was been able in two levels. A consortium involving firms, Dragages, Maeda and BSG, would the tunnel involving Sheung Wan and even Sai Ying Juga Stations. The part of tunnel involving Sai Ying Juga and Kennedy Community Stations, such as design of Hk College or university Station, can be an ankle venture between Gammon Construction Ltd, Nishimatsu and WIL. Gammon Construction Ltd. is certainly constructing Kennedy Community Station. These sub-projects are ongoing and even nearing completion (MTR, 2013). The end of contract of these pieces of the job should adhere to placed down procedure. When the project administrator considers the operate completed, but ahead of workers leave typically the project, he have to prepare a set of things requiring correction or perhaps completion. Subcontractors have to promptly satisfy this sort of requirements and organize for any contractually required tests (AGCA, 2003, 55). As a result, each of typically the subcontractors as well as mutual ventures working away at distinct sections of typically the tunnel should get able to conduct these kinds of tests and to be able to do any various other work, which typically the project manager thinks necessary before typically the project, can be stated to be able to be complete (Schwalbe, 2013).
Once each subcontractor has substantially accomplished the work or perhaps designated portion thereof as listed, typically the project manager have to verify that every single subcontractor’s work is definitely substantially complete and even then request some sort of prompt substantial achievement inspection by typically the project client (in the case, MTR) while contractually required. Typically the project manager have to be present in the course of the inspection method, along with typically the project representative(s) involving the subcontractor(s) whoever work is appearing inspected (AGCA, the year 2003, 55).
As soon as the completion evaluation has become done, typically the project manager have to accomplish a Post-project appraisal. Post-project value determinations (PPAs) are reviews with the effectiveness involving projects based in systematic data series. Specifically, PPA presents an opportunity to be able to determine whether the job was completed fine, and the way to improve foreseeable future restoration design (Skinner 1999, adapted by Sadler 1988). Typically the PPA allows typically the project manager to be able to assess perhaps the portions of the job performed by distinct sub-contractors work jointly as being an efficient, good whole.
Typically the organization chart involving the MTR-WIL is acceptable for WIL since it is specifically designed intended for the WIL job. MTR could be the parent or guardian organization, and WIL has been recognized to build typically the Western Island Series. A number of the project members are permanent personnel of MTR, when others are authorities who have recently been hired for typically the WIL project. Typically the organization chart is definitely shown in Appendix 2 (Kay, 1993).
The CEO of MTR is the head from the Executive directorate. Other members associated with the Executive directorate are the mind of different sections from the project. Older managers in supervising the project plus apprising the table (of MTR) associated with the progress plus performance assist the heads of this kind of departments. Following may be the management team in WIL:
Mr Pole Hockin: General Supervisor – WIL/SIL, that has overall responsibility for that completion of WIL. Reports to the Executive Office.
Mr Brenden Reilly: Project Manager – WIL Civil, within charge of municipal engineering aspects associated with the WIL project. Reports to Common Manager.Mr Presente Tong: Project Administrator – WIL/SIL E& M. He harmonizes the project aims (time, cost and even performance/quality). Reports to be able to General Manager
Mr Stephen Hamill: Construction Manager ~ WIL. Supervises design and reports to be able to Project Manager.
Mr David Salisbury: Construction Manager ~ WIL. Supervises design and reports to be able to Project Manager.
Mr Herbert Leung: Construction Manager ~ WIL/SIL Control Technique. Supervises installation involving the control technique and reports to be able to the Project Administrator.
Mr Ok. M. Lock: Design Manager – WIL/SIL Building Services. Supervises construction and studies to Project Administrator.
Mr S. W. Lau: Design and style Manager – WIL. Is responsible intended for designing and putting into action a final appearance involving the WIL. Studies to Project Administrator.
Right away is the record of engineers by various departments in WIL:
Mr Jeff Barret: Senior Design Manager – Passageways
Mr Ashley Calvert: Senior Design Manager – Passageways
Both the More mature Construction Managers/Engineers in this article are responsible intended for the supervision involving all tunnelling features of the job. As the job has become divided straight into sections under distinct subcontractors, who work with different strategies of tunnelling, each construction administrator will have distinct responsibilities. They are accountable to the Construction Professionals.
Mr Patrick Cheng: Senior Construction Administrator – Civil
Mr Walter Lam: Senior Construction Administrator – Civil
Both the Senior Design Managers/Engineers for Detrimental Engineering will supervise all civil design work with the job. Comparable to their managers, they supervise distinct subcontractors who will be performing different portions of the job. They report to be able to the development Managers.
Mister James Ho: Elderly Construction Manager ~ Comms & Radio station
They implements and supervises the effort of putting in and testing typically the communication and broadcast systems to the WIL. He reports to be able to the Construction Administrator – WIL/SIL Handle System.
Mr Kenneth Lo: Senior Design Manager – BALONEY
He and the team are requested with the design (building services) of which takes place following the tunnelling features been completed. They reports to typically the Construction Manager ~ WIL/SIL Building Companies.
Mr Rodney Ng: Senior Construction Administrator – MCS
They and his crew are responsible for the assembly and operation involving the WIL Key Control System (MCS). He reports to be able to the Construction Administrator – WIL/SIL Handle System.
Project Implementation Handle
Typically the project manager with WIL controls and even coordinates the job through the bureaucratic actions of organizing, organizing, and primary, and the like. Project managers’ actions are regularly geared towards change, when other managers’ work opportunities involve maintaining some sort of stable office (Brown 1998, 13. )
As a result the WIL job manager should be some sort of team manager, by simply interacting with job members, from typically the General Manager, Design Managers and Designers for the builders, drillers and technicians with the site. Seeing that the WIL job involves international competence, the project administrator has to construct team ethos on a multicultural and multilingual group of project staff. Earning the respect of the team is crucial for the project manager; therefore , he/she must be a person of utmost honesty, integrity and vision. (Lockyer & Gordon 1996, 17). The project manager shall control the project constraints to ensure that everything goes as planned. The constraints are time constraint, quality constraint, cost constraint, and scope constraint. The manager will do this by checking project specifications, schedule, and budget allocations. The project manager will use the tools outlined below for that purpose (Chase & Aquilano, 2006).
Control Point Identification Chart
The chart below is going to be useful for tracking areas that may go wrong and anticipating ways in which the project manager will solve the problems to avoid nasty surprises. Table 1 shows some of the problems that may occur during the WIL project, how to identify the problem, and the possible solutions.
Table 1 Control Point Identification Chart
This powerful implementation tool summarizes the status of a project by highlighting key events. Milestone charts state what events in the project’s life have been completed. Also, the chart states the duration it took to complete the events, and, whether this is the duration, the project manager had scheduled for the event (Chase & Aquilano, 2006). Hence, the manager continually records the variance between the actual and scheduled times. Also, it outlines the remaining events and the project manager’s anticipated completion time. Table 2 below shows the Milestone chart for the WIL Project. The project is at its fourth year and as the table indicates, the actual completion times for the remaining “milestones” have not yet been determined.
Table 2 : Milestone Chart
Project and Budget Control Chart
Project and budget control charts record cost, schedule performances to ascertain actual and planned performances of the project. Normally these are based on the nature of the work breakdown structure (Chase & Aquilano, 2006). It makes use of the work packages. In this project, this may not be as applicable but may be useful. The project manager will obtain cumulative amounts for the actual and scheduled performances and drawbar graphs for comparison, as shown in Table 3 below. The above analysis may act as an early indicator as to whether the project manager will meet the parameters of the project (Reiss, 2007). Hence, it may be used as an effective tool to source for additional time or resources from management. If it is a strict-schedule project, this parameter may offer a way for the manager to organize for overtime and to crash the network diagram for a scheduled finish (Chase & Aquilano, 2006).
Table 3 : Project and Budget Control Chart
Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
Work Breakdown Structure
The project manager will subdivide the project scope into manageable segments, assign them to the respective individuals, and document that information. The project manager shall specify the specific requirements of each subunit. This includes approximate budgetary allocation, performance standards, and durations. The project manager will aggregate this information into a clear format for ease of reference. Figure 1 below is a representation of WIL’s Work Breakdown Structure.
Project Leadership Requirements
According to Lockyer & Gordon (1996, 17), requisite skills of a project manager include technological understanding, being well versed in project economics, skill in man management, competence in systems design, maintenance, planning and control, financial competence, procurement competence, and good interpersonal communication abilities. Their character characteristics ought to consist of drive, enthusiasm, commitment and humour, plus a willingness in order to support their personnel when things fail (Lockyer & Gordon, 1996, 17).
At WIL, Project leaders are usually selected based upon their leadership characteristics. For example, the task manager organized the press conference in order to spread the consciousness of noise pollution plus how MTR wil They also arranged using renowned people by society for some sort of similar purpose. This kind of shows his interaction skills. Whenever typically the workers have virtually any technical problem, that they always take tips from the job manager. This indicates his expertise throughout technical matters at the same time. The project administrator is an useful leader as effectively, and he is able to keep unity among typically the workers. This grows a sensation of teamwork, and even the work is definitely accomplished without difficulty.
To hold typically the work going in smoothly, it is certainly very crucial to be able to maintain an prepared workforce. The job manager is the expert in authority qualities. He is aware of how to take care of this sort of huge employees. At weekends, following the duty several hours, he gathers most the workers and even arranges tea and even snacks for these people. He addresses these people sympathetically and demands for any troubles that they may well have. This actions with the project administrator garners honour and even respect for him or her. The employees come send and express their very own problems, and throughout turn, the job manager tries the level best to be able to find solutions (Johnson, Whittington & Scholes, 2011).
Recruiting and demands for MTR job
With the start with the MTR West Area Line Project last season, it was awaited how the project would likely make a total involving 6, 600 work opportunities above the five season length of line design, with peak career amounts of 3, 1000 employees maximum (MTR, 2009). However, typically the vast majority involving the roles created in the course of the construction period are temporary, using permanent operational staff members to be interested once the To the west Island Line is certainly complete. The non permanent construction employees incorporate 1, 500 men and women who were chosen in October 2012 (MTR, 2011, 2). As regards in business staff, MTR hasn’t yet released characters for the range of people to use, but it is definitely anticipated that that they will do as a result as soon as they are prepared to be able to hire them.
Project Method and Treatments
Typically the WIL project is definitely scheduled for achievement by 2014. Some sort of project plan involving MTR is tabled at ‘Appendix 1’. A detailed timetable is in ‘Appendix 3’.
Typically the WIL project approach may be described throughout terms of typically the six project levels manufactured by Brown (1998, 10. ) such as initiation, specification, planning, building, installation and even operation. The gazettal with the WIL job within the Railways Code falls under typically the initiation stage, throughout which the words of reference and even objectives of typically the project are fixed up, and financial constraints are approved.
The system authorization of typically the WIL project underneath the Railways Code, which took place in year, is portion of the requirements phase.
This is and then the design period, where project stakeholders (architects, construction professionals, engineers) explain precisely how the project might meet the relever needs stated throughout the specification period. Step 2 is building. WIL entered this period in July year, with the graduation of West Area Line construction. Though the prior levels were accomplished above nearly couple of years, Darkish (1998, 12) asserts that projects have to not rush into the building, seeing that poor specification and even design may end result in delays and even budget overlaps. Typically the construction phase involved some civil operate neighbourhoods that include been troubled by typically the WIL, including the re-provisioning of David Trench Rehabilitation Centre, and even the re-provisioning involving Kennedy Town Damages (Phase I) which are completed in The spring and might 2011, correspondingly. The laying involving the railway observe began in August 2012, even though the physical and electrical do the job started in The month of september 2012. The breakthrough discovery of railway tube from Sheung Wan station to Kennedy Town station took place in November 2012 (MTR, 2012). The observe laying, mechanical, and even electrical work is definitely ongoing.
The government wants that WIL’s assembly phase will always be complete by 2014. The final period is operation and even review. It will be considered to be some sort of continuation of assessment. Once the job is operational, there ought to be reports at intermittent intervals detailing how a project is jogging and any faults that need to be able to be corrected.
Project management, estimating and expense control techniques
Project organizing, estimating and expense controls are typically the main factors involving a project managing system. For organizations engaged in foreseeable future construction, the appropriate forecast for the future job cost is quite significant (Manfredonia ain al., 2010).
The WIL Project Plan, stated previously, is the base of the job scheduling and expense control in WIL. Once the possible subcontractors have recently been informed of typically the deadline for achievement of their subcontracts, they submit their very own bids. Those, which in turn fit within typically the WIL project approach parameters of moment cost and good quality, are selected and even permitted to carry on. This is accomplished at the requirements phase. However, this kind of is an on-going process, as some sort of subcontractor may get over budget. This kind of is the accountability with the particular subcontractor involved, who might cover all added costs (MTR, 2013).
Management often begins tentatively, with more thorough schedules being designed as the practice proceeds. This calls for consistent communication involving the project administrator and project stakeholders, as they is going to need to always be informed of organizing changes or holdups hindrances impediments in implementation. That is as a result of épreuve nature of management that cost management is also a dynamic process. The initial schedule and cost estimates need to be revised in the light of new information acquired during the project lifespan. This means that scheduling and cost control will fluctuate during the project, as the project manager adjusts to changing circumstances.
There are two types of network diagrams. These are very useful tools in project control. There are two types of network diagrams: Project Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) and Critical Path Analysis (CPM). They are complex decision-making tools that enable project managers to organize work and plan workflows. They provide necessary information that is vital in scheduling and budgeting. This information includes the earliest start times of a project, the latest completion times, time floats, and the critical path. The critical path is the longest route in a network diagram that indicates the time the project will take. It is hard to construct a network diagram for a project with complex times and huge budgets, but the availability of software for that purpose makes it easy. In this project, the techniques may be useful to the project manager in evaluating the progress of the project.
Use of a Gantt chart
This project’s project manager may find it quite useful to engage the use of a Gantt chart in managing complexity in cost and time. A Gantt chart is an intricate tool used for the management of interrelated tasks with different durations. When using a Gantt chart, the project manager assumes that the tasks are linear, and their durations can be determined beforehand with a large degree of precision (Reiss, 2007). However , management should have duration estimates with the relevant possible contingencies.
A Gantt chart has several benefits to the project manager. First, diagrammatically represents the whole project. This makes it easy for the project manager to identify the activities to complete first and clearly, shows the relationships between tasks. Second, it shows the duration of a project. However, in as much as it may show the tasks clearly, it does not indicate dependencies among tasks and the project manager may not know from the Gantt chart how the hold off of one task may affect another. For this purpose, the project manager will have to use the network diagrams (Chase & Aquilano, 2006). Figure 2 below shows the Gantt Chart for the WIL project. It indicates the start times and durations for each activity. However , it does indicate the costs. The durations are indicated in months.
Table 4 : Activity Durations for Gannt Chart
Kennedy town station and overrun tunnel construction
Modification of Sheung Wan Station
Access shafts at Kennedy town Praya and Hill road
Temporary underground magazine construction
Sheung Wan to Sai Ying Pun Tunnel Construction
Instrumentation and monitoring
Sai Ying Pun and Hong Kong University Station, and Sai Ying Pun to Kennedy Town Tunnel Construction
Project site office and works area
Re-provisioning of Kennedy pool area (phase 1)
Re-provisioning of Donald Trench Rehabilitation Heart
Slope changing and natural ground mitigation works
Track work and even overhead line
Methods employed to measure job performance
Measuring performance is definitely used to identify the failure or success involving a project. Typically the project is productive whether it has recently been completed according to be able to specifications and in time. Yet , intended for a long-term job such as WIL, these criteria can not be accustomed to determine the entire job while it is definitely still ongoing. Even so, they can get accustomed to measure typically the performance of job tasks, that happen to be the indicator with the later outcome of typically the project.
As the job parameters are occasion, cost and functionality, the first description parameter for WIL is whether typically the subcontracts have recently been completed in time and even within budget. Inside of terms of functionality, some aspects involving the project will only be considered when it is definitely complete. Nevertheless, in the event that quality control is definitely done for every single segment of typically the project when that is completed, the probability of the completed job meeting and far above performance requirements will probably be increased (MTR, 2013).
Acquired value analysis
The job as at now could be in its last year. The Predicted Actual cost (8600M) is no more than the budgeted cost (13500M) by simply 5100M. However, typically the project records some sort of 94% cost good results rate. The timetable of the job remains on study course as the job is done within several years. As typically the graphical Trend Examination indicates, the exact expense is less as compared to the Planned Cost without notice. Hence, typically the management negotiation using private landowners features significantly reduced fees. It is essential to be aware that all fees in millions involving HK $. Typically the following table implies the project functionality as of your fourth year.
The work began in July involving 2009 and while of July involving 2013, 4 decades had elapsed. Typically the earned value seemed to be HK $ tough luck. 5 Billion. Typically the schedule variance seeing that of July 2013 (today) was HÄSTKRAFTER $ -200M while shown in Chart above. This signifies the project is definitely delayed a very little bit. The expense variance as involving July 2013 (today) is HK money -600M. Therefore typically the actual cost is definitely below the finances. The project expended much less when compared to the way planned because typically the route of typically the railway track seemed to be slightly reduced following Mass Transit Train negotiated a contract together with some landowners. Fashionable is that the job is behind timetable, nevertheless the actual expense is less than typically the budget. This is definitely because tunnelling and even over groundworks expended significantly, less as compared to the fact that was planned mainly because of a quicker railway route (Chase & Aquilano, 2006).
Job Change Control Treatments
Inside of WIL, project transform is authorized by way of change orders. Typically the project manager monitors them and studies on them to be able to stakeholders at most levels of typically the project (AGCA, the year 2003, 39). Changes will be often the effect of a modification in the clients’ requirements, changes inside of local authority polices, correcting errors in the specifications, unavailability of specific materials or equipment, and new technology. Minimizing misunderstanding due to change is the responsibility of the project manager. Requests for change should be detailed, including the time and cost estimates for making the change, and the period for responding to the change request.
In WIL, the change procedure is the responsibility of the project manager. As far as reasonably possible under the contract agreements, subcontractors are supposed to fulfil the terms and conditions of their contracts. If a subcontractor is unable to do so, they are required to communicate with the project manager, who will then decide what level of change (if any) can be allowed from the original requirements without compromising project schedule, budget or quality (MTR, 2013)
Source: (AGCA, 2003)
Evaluation of the Completed Project
In project evaluation, the institutional environment and the interests of the stakeholders are taken into consideration (Haezendonck, 2007). The WIL project is progressing in terms of its three objectives, namely performance/quality, cost and time. Judging by the parts of the project that have been completed, it is fair to say that they meet the required quality. This can be determined from the completion of the David Trench Rehabilitation Centre, the Kennedy Town Swimming Pool and the breakthrough of the railway tunnel from Sheung Wan station to Kennedy Town station, signalling the substantial completion of the tunnelling process (MTR, 2012b). These segments of the project amount to two-thirds of the core project, thus an accurate evaluation of the performance and quality of WIL must await its completion in 2014. Therefore , it is fair to state that the MTR West Island Line project is substantially along the path to its performance/quality goal of providing a fast, reliable commuter service to residents of the Western District of Hong Kong Island right at the end of 2014. It is usually crucial that this will not exceed the particular target budget regarding HK$ 15. some billion, and six, 600 employees (Reiss, 2007).
The WIL task is adopting the transportation policy in the Federal government, according to that the railway system is usually as the backbone regarding the transport method. The additional about three new stations can ease the highway traffic jam in the particular vicinity. The task, once completed, can connect the American district towards the Key business district.
The inhabitants of the European district have extended been looking forward to a great alternative transport method, and WIL may put an conclusion to their hold out. Further, numerous job opportunities have been developed which may have helped the particular natives. The attributes situated along the particular railway may have a new value appreciation.
Though the particular company is currently doing some neighborhood works, the mess of such works should be elevated. Another recommendation is usually that the business should be extremely particular about the particular environment. It will come up with a policy where. A tree ought to be planted for each and every tree that provides been cut for making way for the particular project. This method, the company will be maintaining an environmental balance.
Apart from the particular proposed Information middle, the company need to plan to produce a museum likewise. The museum need to portray the historical past of Hong Kong’s transportation system in addition to MTR’s contribution found in bringing it in order to today’s standard.
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