Young Female Customers’ Luxury Fashion Purchasing in the UK
The primary objective of this research study was to present an insight into the particular motives defining the particular purchasing and usage of luxury style among young woman customers in the united kingdom. The particular researcher applied quantitative research designed given that the study has been focused on the single market section. Through direct job interview and focused study, the researcher interacted with a test of 6 participants within the age group bracket of eighteen and 32 many years. The findings pointed out that the small female market section is actively involved with luxury fashion inside the UK. These customers drew inspiration from your media commentary, woman celebrities, and info about different styles from your views associated with friends before building a purchasing choice.
The element of social standing associated with stylish wear motivated all of them to buy various luxury brands that will are above their own disposable income. As a result, marketers targeting the particular young female section should create communications that appeal in order to the aspired way of life to effectively attractiveness to this team. The research has been focused on the particular young female clients in the united kingdom from the collectivist cultural alignment and motivations at the rear of their purchasing behaviors. Therefore, the outcomes associated with the study possess added new info in the luxurious fashion purchasing blend from your perspective associated with the young woman customers. These effects could be incorporated into the product ads to optimise the particular outcome of the purchasing decision process inside the UK marketplace and beyond.
Context plus Rationale of the particular Study
In the particular last 2 decades, the UK fashion industry has experienced a paradigm shift as luxury brands flood the market. The current predictions indicate that the UK fashion industry will be worth at least £30 billion by 2030 (Homburg, Jozic & Kuehnl 2017). Despite the global economic recession of 2008, the UK fashion industry has experienced positive growth over the last 10 years. A commercial research survey conducted in the year 2013 indicated that the market penetration of different luxury fashion brands increased by 34% in the UK market between the year 2005 and 2012 (Homburg, Jozic & Kuehnl, 2017).
Despite the fact that young female customers do not have adequate disposable income to indulge in the constant purchase of luxury fashion, their exposure to information about these brands is richer than other population segments (Nawaz, Ashraf & Shaikh, 2014). The national media and different social media platforms have perpetuated a culture of shopping via credit cards as customers can purchase and pay at a later date. Therefore, the proposed study intends to link the young female customer segment to luxury fashion products and factors influencing their purchasing behaviour. There are very few studies that have concentrated on this customer segment. This study aims to fill this gap by exploring the motivation and purchasing behaviour of young female customers with regards to luxury fashion brands from hedonic and utilitarian perspectives.
Aims and Objectives
The proposed study aims at establishing the factors influencing young female customers’ purchasing behaviour in the uptake of luxury fashion in the UNITED KINGDOM. Therefore, the goals are;
Preliminary Literature Review
Several theoretical frameworks happen to be put forward in order to explain customer behavior in the common business environment through hedonic influence plus utilitarian perspectives. For example, the consumer choice theory states that will customers are clients inspired mainly simply by the actual or even perceived benefits prior to making a choice to buy an item (Kotler & Keller 2016). Which means that the particular process of choice making is active and determined by factors such as issue identification, evaluation, info search, purchase choice, and post-purchase reaction (see figure 1).
Kotler plus Keller (2016) possess put forward the particular consumer behaviour because angled around the components of preference formula and intention because correlated to the particular attitude and practical values of clients towards an item. This particular means that the particular decision process is usually cyclical as behaviour might be influenced by different sets of hedonic factors. This theory further states that the final decision framework is dynamic and multifaceted on the basis of hedonic orientation personal intentions (see figure 2).
The theoretical frameworks indicate that purchasing behaviour functions on satisfaction and dissonance matrices in line with the hedonic performance expectations. For instance, the experimental and emotional decisions are triggered by a multi-sensory process associated with a shopping experience (Kotler & Keller 2016). This means that a typical customer might be influenced by the utilitarian dynamics associated with an item. For instance, items associated with status or trend tend to attract more attention than daily usage products.
Several studies have been carried on the utilitarian and hedonic influences on the purchasing behaviour of customers. For instance, Nawaz, Ashraf and Shaikh (2014) established that the perception of customers is influenced by the perceived benefits attributed to a product. This means that incorporation of the ideal benefits that appeal to specific needs has the particular potential of revitalizing an inclination of the customer towards the particular purchasing decision. An additional study by Homburg, Jozic and Kuehnl (2017) outlined the particular status as essential determinant factors within the purchasing blend for luxurious items. This is a good indication that client adoption is favorably tuned by the particular status quest connected with an item. Research by Meng-Shan et al. (2015) concurs that standing is definitely an instrumental determinant of focused buying behaviour, especially through a cultural plus individualistic society.
The findings pointed out that utilitarian plus hedonic factors impact the quest for the higher status effects behavioural intendment with regard to luxury products. These types of influences have the different level associated with impacts around the buying behaviour in a variety of client segments. Specifically, Lohdi and Naz (2016) established that practical influences are greatest among the younger population due in order to their integration associated with social media being an active interaction system. For instance, throughout the globe, the particular youthful population are creating an unique press culture characterised simply by the exchange associated with information about pattern, status, and design. The findings recommended that self-perception associated with the benefits connected with a luxurious brand is the positive customer wedding stimulant like a hedonic factor. On a single notice, Nawaz, Ashraf plus Shaikh (2014) connected customer purchasing behavior to trend within a product brand name. The author came to the conclusion that there exists a positive correlation between item acceptance and recognized trend, specifically for the particular youthful population. The particular author further pointed out that young clients are active within pursuing consumption routines that conform in order to the trendiness wishes among peers.
In exploring the particular principle of rarity, a study simply by Meng-Shan et ing. (2015) found away that luxury manufacturers are perceived because rare within the marketplaces. Therefore, customers that are in the position to obtain these rare tools are perceived as getting a higher standing. Thus products that will are luxurious are usually perceived as the determinant of respect and position. The particular weight of focused groups on the buying habits of luxury products has been recognised by a series of past studies. For instance, Meng-Shan et al. (2015), Lohdi and Naz (2016), and Nawaz, Ashraf and Shaikh (2014) have suggested that isolation of a focused group is responsible for different ‘buying frenzies’ as a result of the limited edition fad. This means that consumers of luxury brands are motivated to buy the ‘right’ brand that fits in their reference groups. The findings confirmed that younger customers are susceptible to influence associated with reference group trend.
Relevance in order to the Research Topic
Most of the particular empirical studies had been based around the younger population when it comes to aspects that impact their own purchasing behaviour upon luxury brands. Therefore, the researcher has been able to make use of this general understanding to design-focused study to target the united kingdom market in collection with the five-stage decision making assumptive model.
Since this research is targeted and very subjective, the researcher selected a mixed-method style to integrate the series of relevant data analysis tools (Bryman & Bell 2015). Moreover, the mixed design is associated with a systematic comparative analysis in linking the independent and dependent variables. The dependent variable is young female customers, while the independent variable is purchasing behaviour. The researcher opted for a deductive approach to gain insight into the current indicators of purchasing behaviour in a focused population segment.
Since a deductive approach is effective in establishing the link between purchasing behaviour and age, the researcher used closed-ended questions to roll out a focused and systematic survey consisting of thirty respondents. Data collection was done through a questionnaire consisting of 5 questions prepared on a 5-item Likert scale. The rationale for selecting a closed-ended question format was informed by the need to guide the framing of responses (Bryman & Bell 2015). The researcher selected the respondents through a random sampling strategy. This was followed by a qualitative interview for a single respondent.
The researcher selected the analysis of difference (ANOVA) instrument to recognize the potential record variations on the particular data collected. The particular two elements associated with ANOVA analysis are usually way of age variation
and shopping behaviour
(Bryman & Bells 2015). Thus, the particular null and option hypotheses for the particular ANOVA analysis are usually;
Ho: µ1 sama dengan µ2
The null hypothesis means that the particular mean from the chosen sample population upon factors influencing client shopping behaviour will be equivalent to the particular mean for the particular entire population section.
Ho: µ1 ≠ µ2
The null hypothesis implies that will the mean associated with the selected test population on aspects influencing customer buying behaviour is just not comparative to the imply for the whole population segment.
When the F-calculated is larger than the particular F-critical, the null hypothesis is going to be declined at a self-confidence interval of 99%.
In in an attempt to minimise potential biases, the researcher pretested the questions via a pilot study comprising five respondents to make sure that the final queries are neutral. Furthermore, the respondents had been selected within the particular targeted age ranges, which are 18 to 32 years old female customers. The other basic requirements to qualify as a respondent are frequency in consumption of luxurious fashion and basic literacy (Bryman & Bell 2015).
Research Ethics and Risk Assessment
The researcher will integrate the University of the Arts Code of Ethics by including a consent letter to ensure that the respondents are informed of the purpose, aim, and objectives of the study. Moreover, the informed consent letter will highlight legal and steps in place to protect the identity of participants from the beginning to the end of the survey (Bryman & Bell 2015). The respondents will also be given an opportunity to either accept or decline a request to participate in the proposed study. The attached consent form will enable the respondents to understand the expectations and terms of engagement as a basic ethical principle in scientific research. Since the researcher has adequate training on how to conduct a survey study, the aspect of professionalism will be upheld at all the time during research planning, data, collection, analysis, and interpretation (Bryman & Bell 2015). In addition , the researcher will seek permission from relevant authorities within the area of study to ensure that the research is protected legally and ethically throughout the survey.
Findings of Primary Research
Findings and Analysis
The response rate was 100%, that is, the targeted participants all filled and submitted their questionnaires on time (see table 1 and 2).
Table 1. Summary of the response rate against gender.
Table 2. Summary of the demographic traits of the respondents.
Statistical Data Analysis
Transcription and data coding was done by the researcher on advantages of the shopping experience with regard to different shopping systems for rank, regular deviation, and lead to (see table 3). The primary features reviewed were interpersonal, convenience, status, the rarity.
Table 3. Summary associated with the rank, imply, and standard change for different characteristics.
The results, as captured inside table 3 claim that social attributes associated with an extravagance fashion item had the greatest just mean (5. 2849) accompanied by convenience (4. 8349). The third feature when it comes to influence upon shopping behaviour within the sample populace was status, along with a mean rating of 4. 4786. The attribute of rarity had the least influence on the buying habit at a mean of 4. 1643. Since all the results are within a single-digit variance, it is in order to conclude that there was consistency in the generated responses. The same trend was repeated for standard deviation and rank.
In order to correlate these attributes to shopping behaviour among the young female respondents, the researcher carried out a comprehensive correlation analysis. The purpose of this analysis was to establish the trend in the magnitude of the impact of each attribute on purchasing behaviour (see table 4). In order to effectively give an insight into the relevant indicators, the researcher modified the earlier proposed hypotheses to test their validity, as presented below.
The null hypothesis, Ho: There is no correlation between different attributes and purchasing behaviour of young female customers within the UK fashion industry.
The alternative hypothesis, H1: There is a correlation between different attributes and purchasing behaviour of young female customers within the UK fashion industry.
Table 4. Correlation analysis results.
As summarised in table 4, there is a positive correlation between the four attributes and purchasing behaviour in the sampled population. The social attribute had the highest correlation coefficient of 0. 667followed by a convenience indicator at 0. 641. The attribute of rarity had the least correlation coefficient of 0. 427. Generally, the positive correlation for four attributes is a confirmation that the independent and dependent variables are associated. In order to establish specific behaviour orientations in each of the four attributes, the researcher introduced ANOVA analysis with the original hypotheses suggested in the research design section. The ANOVA analysis was necessary since it permits multivariate tests for each variable (see table 5).
Table 5. Summary of the rank, S. D, and mean of each attribute.
Apparently, the social attribute was the predominant factor influencing young female customers’ purchasing behaviour within the indicators of age, frequency of shopping, and employment status. However, rarity had the least influence in the buying decision process among the young female customers sampled. The results of the ANOVA analysis were then tabulated to identify a trend in the multivariate relationship among the indicators of age, employment status, and duration spent in luxury fashion stores (see table 6). In order to establish the multivariate trend for the employment, time spent, and age indicators, the researcher, created the following hypotheses.
Ho: µ1 = µ2 = µ3
The null hypothesis states that dissimilarities do not exist in the decision behaviour influence for the indicators of time spent shopping, employment status, and age of young female customers.
Ho: µ1 ≠ µ2 ≠ µ3
The alternative hypothesis states that dissimilarities exist in the decision behaviour influence for the indicators of time spent shopping, employment status, and age of young female customers.
The findings of the multivariate analysis were tabulated to establish the F-ratio, P-value and degree of freedom for the three indicators (see table 6).
Table 6. Degree of freedom for each of the three indicators.
Interestingly, the findings indicated suggested that there exist a positive relationship between shopping behaviour and the three indicators. The P-value and F-value for the attributes and their relationship to the three indicators are 0. 001 and 4. 32, respectively. This means that the null hypothesis is invalid at a 99% confidence interval. The result suggests that the four attributes and their impact on young female customer purchasing behaviour vary with employment, age, and frequency/duration of each shopping process. Therefore , these findings have confirmed that the Social, convenience, status, and rarity attributes are significant in manipulating the young female customers’ purchasing behaviour within the UK luxury fashion industry.
On the other hand, the qualitative data analysis also indicated that there is a positive correlation between the four attributes and purchasing behaviour of the sampled population. As confirmed from the empirical and theoretical framework literature, the research study associated the attributes of social, convenience, status, and rarity as influencing the purchasing decision among the young female customers within the UK restaurant sector. For instance, the respondent noted,
Before I buy a luxury fashion brand, I must look at its physical appeal so that it can affirm my social class and status. I might then look at rarity since it is not fun to see somebody else wearing the same cloth. Convenience is the least factor since shopping for luxury clothes may make me journey even for two hundred miles within my free of charge time.
Specifically, social attribute experienced the strongest impact on purchasing behavior, while the rarity element was the particular least influencing within the decision designs of the tested population. The quantitative and qualitative results established similar outcomes.
Conclusion plus Limitations
Conclusion plus Recommendations
The goal of this research was to set up the cultural characteristics of the buying behaviour of younger female customers inside the UK style industry. The specialist confirmed that the particular variations, modifications, plus processes involved within making a choice to buy a luxurious brand inside the tested population are affected by different social attributes (social, comfort, status and rarity). Specifically, the outcomes pointed out that there will be an optimistic correlation among shopping behaviour plus cultural attributes within the sample populace. These results adapt to the assumptive and empirical research revealing that the particular social attributes possess written for the paradigm shift in the particular shopping patterns among the youthful population. Specifically, the findings were consistent with the five-stage decision model by explaining the systematic relationship between the dependent and independent variables.
The study has revealed that age, employment status, and frequency/duration in a buying cycle are significant indicators of a purchasing pattern. Therefore, the results of this study, empirical research, and theoretical frameworks have proven that young female customers within the UK luxury fashion sector are influenced by social, convenience, status, and rarity attributes to associate with a brand when making the purchase decision. The findings further clarify that age group is a substantial influence in the particular perception related to every attribute of a buying trend. Probably the most main attribute impacting the particular purchasing behaviour within the sample populace is social advantages. This means that will marketers of luxurious brands should incorporate messages that charm to social advantages to appeal in order to the young woman market segment. Furthermore, it is crucial for merchants of luxury style brands to institutionalize effective information publicity ways of conform in order to the expanded on the internet buying habits within this focused client segment.
Limitations and Avenues for even more Research
Although the particular findings of this particular study conformed in order to the existing scientific and theoretical books, the researcher recognized several limitations. With regard to instance, the test size of 10 participants was insufficient for any scientific research. This means that will the outcomes could not really be representational associated with the general buying behaviour among the particular young female clients inside the UK luxurious fashion sector. Within addition, the quantitative nature from the specialist could not offer room for taking respondents’ personal understanding beyond the led responses.
Since the study has been limited in conditions of time plus scope, the researcher had not been able to expound on the theoretical frameworks or empirical results. This means that the literature review was focused on the interpretation of the results and not the process of gathering the same. Therefore, there is a need to have for further research to establish underlying reasons associated with each attribute as impacting on purchasing behaviour among young female customers.
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